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3rc3 midterm notes

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Caribbean Midterm ReviewThe Caribbean Overview Gary Elbow 3 zone theory1 The core inner zone Trinidad Dominican Jamaica Cuba2 The fringe3 PeripheryGreater Antilles Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Cayman Islands Puerto Rico Leeward Islands USBritish Virgin Islands Antigua Saint Martin Saint Kits Guadeloupe Windward islands Martinique Grenada Barbados Trinidad 3 unifying Geo facts 1 Except for Bahamas is located in tropics2 Caribbean seaAtlantic Oceantrade between islands and other regions3 Long history of colonial dominationsstill impacts culture society economy Tourism leads to one sided superficial vision of the Caribbeando a good job of hiding all the issues First area really incorporated into modern day capitalismslave trade and plantation systemdid not advantage the Caribbean Four major empires British Dutch French Spanishimpose language and religion on their territories Difference between Spanish and British one man rule vs parliamentary politicsSpanish Govern from afarBritish before 1810 allowed British to make own laws and given as they saw fit The planter class had much more power than Spanish elites on the islandsCaribbean at times is center of international affairs but at other also neglectthththDuring 16 century greatest value to the Spanish17 century British Dutch French enter18century is the centermost important colony anywhere in the world sugar cotton tobacco rumth19 century only significant to Spanish and North America Less money flow to Britain France and Dutch therefore less interested Cuba important to National Economy US manifest destiny did not like Euro controlling colonies so close to North AmericaUS interfere in the Caribbean more than any other region Monroe Doctrine 1823 US would not tolerate any interference or colonization by Europeans in Americas Racial ideology of Europe internalized by many people regardless of ethnicity and continues to have an impactelaborate networks of hierarchies Lack of cohesion through the Caribbean partly attributed to economydont see as integrated regionlargest trading partner is North America and Europe not each otherWinds made it easier to sail from Europe to Barbados than from Cuba to Barbados Cane sugar made them wealthiest colonies but sugar industry declined by world war oneQuestion How does the Caribbean compete and retain sovereignty in such an integrated and globalized worldAmerican Intervention Start revolutionary wars of Napoleonic Wars18031815st Haitian Revolution tied to French revolution and decisions made by National Assembly1 time slaves take control of country and limited French control in HaitiSpain lost during Napoleonic Wars French occupied Spain from 18031812 it allowed Creole aristocracy to seize control throughout the AmericasSpain lost all power but manage to keep hold of Cuba and Puerto Ricounwillingness to allow local planters to have more power sparked revolutionary ideas Reduction of Spanish power France loss of Haiti and occupation with wars left power void in the CaribbeanUS Cuba more powerful and wealthy than Spain make up gap through autocratic ruleSpain was keeping Cuba back from reaching full potential because of the way it dealt with economykeep thall power and tax so heavily which hurt sugar industry Did not fully develop until 19 century importation of slaves increased sugar industrylarge number of slaves importedbut unlike EnglishFrench slave labour did not replace white labourSpain encouraged immigration to Colonies to deal with poverty th turn 20 century the white on the island out number non whites by 21 Social order also different elite were urban and long participatedunderstood the world market Spanish Caribbean did not have island legislatureparliament to address issues on the island Island ruled by Captain General who had unlimited powers could deport anyone challenging authority or seen undesirable gov incompetence weakened rule and allowed planters to take controlunhappy with situationNo other island planters so under control if policyCuba makes Spain rich without giving back to CubaAngermoney taken out local economy and not returned Taxed all importsexports making sugar less profitable Independence from Spain was discussed but most planters feared would spark slave uprising Support annexation to US become US state Many admired the US because they believed it was the perfect model vote economic growth belief in progress race based oppression Spain declined various offers Series of uprisings in Cuba in search of independence Planters had to work with slaves to gain freedom but did not want to end slavery therefore annexation was best option 1880s slavery abolished bad time for plantersprice of sugar declined and cant adjust Solution integrate sugar industry into large companiesAmericans invest in planters sell out provide jobs to plantersface of Cuban sugar industry still Cuban modernize sugar industry by establishing corporations America gained more control in CubaBy 1895 less than 20 of mill owners came from old country class 1895 major revolt civil war lasting 3 years Revolutionaries received widespread support from people and weapons from US Strategy make Cuba worthless to Spain by burning sugarRebel generals ban sugar production to ensure Spain gets nothing Cuban exiles pushing for US intervention to help gain independence 1898 US president order Battleship Maine to Havanaexplosion on Maine attributed to Spain which resulted in War with SpainAmericans win Treaty of Paris 1989example of US taking control in CubaSpain granted Cuban independence and ceded Puerto Rico to US Americans move quickly to disarm both sides Independent Cuba played by Americans rules to benefit Cuba Platt Amendments evidence of growing US controlnot allowed Foreign debt June 1901 Havana constitutional convention agreed to add Platt as apart of Cuban constitutionCuba not fully independent Puerto Rico Different from Cubaeconomy and society developed in different ways no civil wars always treated as same as Cubano long history of sugar production Coffee was main crop effecting the way society developed planters were less rich import less slaves therefore more Europeans Most people of colour were free 1870 planter elite rally behind idea of being independentAlly with political party in Spain 1898 granted autonomycould rule the islandfirst gov took control July 17 On July 25 US troops land on island and occupygained treaty of Paris argued the island was to small to be granted independence or grant statehood because of Spanish culture Foraker Act 1900 treat as colonyruled by governor citizens of PR and not the US established frame work for economic dependency long term economic consequence Puerto Rican economy forced to fit with US economyact was unpopular as it was seen as being undemocratic Jones Act 1917 PR became American citizens Did not pay federal taxes or vote PR more power over local lawsparliament elected universal suffrage Still treated as other President appointed governor top officials supreme court judge Was not equal with other American states Paceo was recalled and devalued60 of its worth instant loss of 0 of wealth which allowed us corporations to take control Americans greatly profited old planter class dying out
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