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Midterm Exam Review

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Katharine Rollwagen

Part A: Terms Red River Colony • Began in 1812 by lord Selkirk, who hoped the colony would be a haven for immigrants escaping overpopulated Britain o This failed at the beginning to get people there o Northwest company were concerned the settlement was a plot o The settlements first governor ordered a ban on the export of pemmican in the area o This threatened the NWC and the Metis who made the money and living selling it o He also banned hunting buffalo which the Metis did before o Metis respond violently o They manage to get the economy to disband • Poor crops, the Pemmican war, and heightened racial tensions made the early period of the colony fraught with difficulties o Metis militia, colonists shot first but they got off first 21 men killed and only 2 Metis killed o Racial divisions were continued to be pretentious o Colony was a mix of Metis and retired Europeans Thomas Scott • Metis Resistance on Red River 1869-70 o Thomas Scott was executed  Provisional government had arrested some of the Canadian surveyors • Who tried to take back Fort Gary  He was accused about being unruly of trying to escape several time, so because of his behaviors he was tried and sentenced to death  Scott was not anyone famous before his death, but when the news of his execution reached Ontario who were white men “Canada First” was this as an opportunity to use to form opposition against the Metis  Argue Anglo-saxon protestants are the most superior to the half breeds at Red River  George Denison and Charles Mair presented Scott as a Protestant martyr killed by Catholic “half-breeds: in newspaper editorials Indian Act • Indian Act – 1876 o Domestic legislation o Legalized and formalized the relationship between Native people and the State  Paternalistic relationship o Made them legally wards of the state  “Child” unable in the eyes of the law, make decisions for themselves  Removed a lot of the ability of natives to govern themselves  Regulated the sale of their land  No longer able to buy or sell land  Disenfranchised natives – no longer have right to vote  Why – voting require literacy and they were not literate not enough to vote (double standard)  Regulated legal status of who was considered an Indian and who was not  Resulted in: disappearing Indian on paper • Population numbers, difficult to track the size of different native communities when you look at legal definition as stated in the act • Meant that aboriginal women who married a none aboriginal man in the eyes of the law was no longer Indian – lost their status, their children would also not belong to the community they belonged to  Also any white women who married a native man were now native – few recorded cases • On paper looks like population was decreasing  They could go through disfranchisement – declare desire to renounce their Indian status could be granted full citizenship rights  Codified in law the very back and whit idea that you are white, or Indian in the law, Metis are not Indian – they do not apply to the law – this is not a way in which people define themselves  Did not reflect the history of the prairies Palliser • 1764-868 Governor = Hugh Palliser o Took steps to keep newfoundland away from a settlement colony o Expelled 5000 fugitives o Often asked people living in these settlements if they were supposed to be here and often sending them to find somewhere else to live o Face of British authority • Why? o Desire to maintain migratory fishery Palliser’s Act – 1775 o To discourage new England merchants from trading in Newfoundland o A lot of the men who served in the migratory fishery, became very able seamen and they were needed to serve in the royal navy o Fisher = nursery school for the future navy and they did not want to give up with rich source of sailors o This act created tighter British control over the fishery • Was this arable land? – looking west o 1850s survey expedition o Hugh Palliser’s report (surveys the land)  Palliser’s Triangle used to lobby for migration and settlement • Land unsuitable for living • Too dry o Because of his report some government officials doubted the potential of that piece of land o Palliser’s also identified the fertile belt  Felt was worth cultivating once there was a railway to bring settlers to the area o His report = tool for expansion for those arguing for expansion Supreme Court • Supreme Court of Canada – 1875 o Wanted to create it to prove Canada’s independence from Britain o This was opposed by some members of parliament because they considered themselves loyal to Britain and it was too soon for Canada to move away from Britain so fast o Federal court would not be able to rule on laws under provincial jurisdictions o Judicial Committee of the Privy Council remained “court of last resort” until 1949 Gold Rush • BC • Gold discovered on Fraser River, 1858 • Population rose exponentially in a mater of months • HBC could not control and administrate the mainland effectively with so many new people in the are, so the British Crown created a new colony, BC o No proper government o Too many people o Fights between Europeans and Natives • Joined with Vancouver Colony in 1866 • At the end of the gold rush, the went into a gold rush slump  leading to confederation Pacific Scandal • Sir Hugh Allen – expresses his desire to build the railway  natural choice o You want it you pay for it – response from parliament o He had a shipping company, brought thousands of British immigrants to Canada and he was extending his interests into railways o Was known as one of the wealthiest men – thus natural choice o Awarded contract in 1873 • But a man in parliament found that he gave the government $350 000 Tories (therefore he did pay for it) o AKA Pacific Scandal o Macdonald was charged with corruption and resigns in 1873 o Now Governor General Mackenzie to take reigns of government • As a result of the scandal o Opposition party – liberals – introduce legislation for secret ballots at elections  1874 Federal election first to use secret ballots 0 supposed to discourage bribery (it was already illegal) Numbered Treaties • 1870s Canada acquires NW from HBC • Negotiating treaties to extinguish native reserve land (east to west) o Known as Numbered Treaties  Process of negotiating the treaties, the terms under which FN were living, there was not an equal power structure, federal government had the advantage – collapse of buffalo herds – economic under pinning of communities was lessoning so felt they had to accept the terms even though they vocally opposed them • Poundmaker Cree leader o Government should be providing more to his people, if they wanted them to change they were living, give them more then shovels, they need education, need to know how farming works in the Prairies and they need better land (not the unwanted parcels that were being given) o He signed the Treaty on Battle River but resisted to do it • The position they were in, they were not in the position not to sign them, but many tried to renegotiate the terms or try to change the way they were being conducted Joseph Howe • Led movement to reduce power of unelected Executive Council • Advocate for responsible government • He was a journalist • 1837 he wrote a series of resolution that attacked the council of twelve and was able to gain the support of the entire elected assembly against the continuation of this appointed executive council • Colonial authorities realize they need to compromise in 1837 – need to allow some kind of self government and they offer to make the Elected council more representative of Nova Scotia, make it more diverse • Howe did not stop at this reform, kept pushing for responsible government • Same year New Brunswick achieved responsible government, Howe got the governor to state that the Executive can be dissolved if the Elected government did not agree with them • Now they are more responsible to the elected council Manitoba Act • Metis promised land in Manitoba Act (1870) o Metis promised land o Ownership of land o Children of the families of partial Aboriginal background o No strict definition of what a Metis is • Negotiations had to be made in private • Could not agree amnesty for Metis who took control of Fort Gary • Agreed to implement many of the terms the provisional government wanted o Bilingualism o Land for Metis o Self-government • MANITOBA ACT passed in 1870 Protectionism • Using tariffs to stimulate trade, protect certain industries from competition o American manufactures less likely to export to Canada, thus more Canadian manufacturing o Wanted voters to consider the conservative party with NATION BUILDING – and he got this for his most part o Liberals wanted more reciprocity with America that were there in early 50s-60s wanted more integration • Allowed Macdonald to appear patriotic, loyal – Conservatives as the party of Canada • Canada depends on national policy • Was successful because he convinced mainstream population that everyone is to gain from national prosperity not just those who owned businesses o Rhetorical victory for Macdonald – the interests of capital were in the interests of everyone Canada First o Look under Thomas scott NWMP • Evidence that not a lot of Metis wanted to stay in Red River – Why? o 1. Arrival of government, military, creation of NWMP  Chose red surge uniform because it resemble tradition red coats of British army which original leaders hoped would inspire loyalty in the FN populations  In Victorian fashion members of the NWMP attributed the violence they experienced to lower classes  Discriminate people of mixed heritage  Didn’t treat Metis nor FN well and so this did not make the Metis want to stay when NWMP arrived  Also fact the Real was forced into exile bothered many Home Children ***** THAT ALL I HAVE ­ Several schemes to bring Irish troublemakers to upper Canada in the 1820’s o Gov. paid ~ 226 lbs per person, too much, especially considering that within two years, 1/3 of the families re-located had abandoned the land and moved elsewhere. o Immigration granted by private or charitable organizations: British home children:  Transportation of children to the colonies.  Sold as a good opportunity for orphaned, abandoned, children.  Annie MacPherson and Marie Rye: each started their own home in Canada. Knights of Labour • Industrial Unionism: o There working conditions led to growing demands for better working conditions o The formation of a union based on industry or workplace, not specific skills  o Made gilds to help each other, so collected money and if someone needed it, they had it to help them o This is a formation made on the industry as a whole o Idea that it doesn’t matter your specific job, if you are a waged worker, you belong to that union o Together skilled and unskilled workers in a particular industry would have a stronger voice – more bargaining power as opposed to excluding the unskilled labourers who made up the workforce o Employers were not legally obligated to recognize unions, nor their right to create one until 1943, and employees had veth little recourse or protection against being fired (legal in late 19 C, for an employer to fire anyone who is making a union against him) o 1880s: Knights of Labour  Active in Hamilton  Their demands: 9h day, 6 days a week, and an end to the practice of hiring children and convicts  If children are not in the workforce, becomes easier for the Male adult workforce to negotiate on their own terms (because completion for cheap labour with children) Reform Movement - 1887 Rebellion • William Lyon Mackenzie o Leader of the rebellion o Newspaper man- owned newspaper  Colonial advocate o Expelled for libeling members of the Tory party  He was always able to get re elected • Lower Canada Louis- Joseph Papineau o Leader of the patriots o Anti clerical nationalist o A French Canadian nation with specific characteristics o Did not think the catholic faith should be a defining characteristic of that community o Also opposed to British control o Does not want to align with the US either o Seigneur inherited in 1817 o Embrace a rural and agricultural way of life • Rebellion of the middle class • Different ideas about the changes o Agreed that the existing political system were unfair to the majority of the people who were living in the government o Democratic organization and autonomy o Rewarded a small number of elites who did not deserve to be rewarded o Retarding the growth of the Canadas Metis o RED RIVER Bank Act • Creating capital requirements for people who wanted to start a bank • Prohibited foreign owned banks • Each bank issued its own notes • Institutions made Canada seem like a safe investment for those who wanted to invest in Canada and grow economy by controlling banking Centralization o CPR o Railway was a nationalist project – expensive, necessary to exert control o Driven by the idea to expand the economy o But doesn’t make sense to build a railway across a sparse land – economics did not justify this building o But it was necessary to exert control in that part of Canada o Railways responsible for foreign investment 1860s-80s o Canadians and railway construction business raised about 16 million dollars in investments to build it o Tendering contracts for CPR construction o Slow to get the western railway building started but when BC came into confederation it was time to see who was going to build this o Many of the men investing money to win the contract, had connections to members of parliament and a lot of members of parliament being well off men, had money invested in different railway companies Political Deadlock??? – Im not sure I don’t think my answer is right • Union of the Canada’s o One colony with one administration, one elected assembly, one governor, and one appointed executive • This quickly became known as Canada west and east • A lot of upper Canadian elites were in favour of this, because they were in a lot of debt and now it would be shared by the two • And the Lower Canadian elites were also happy because now the French would be in the minority o Reduce French power in elected assemblies • French were unhappy, Lord Durham thought they should be assimilated into the Anglophone populations • Even though they were able to vote on this union, the Lower Canadian did not vote on it, because it was suspended because of the rebellion • Did not have elected representative government o Lending to resentment • East part of the united Canada was given 42 seats in the large united assembly • Canada east has larger population then Canada west o Nothing of representation of population o Population did not matter, 42 seats for each part of the colony • Active union in 1840 begins 20 years of political deadlock in the Canada’s o Political system stayed the same o You had to be a British subject to run in the elections, and had to own 500 pounds worth of property  Not everyone could do • Reformers in this system, still want responsible government o This united reform minded politicians regardless of their ethnic and linguistic backgrounds o Executive NOT responsible to legislative branch BNAAct Act of Union** • 1840- the Act of Union o 1 colony of Canada  Lower Canada and upper Canada have equal representation and one elected assembly  English is the only official language st • BNA Act – July 1 – Dominion Day • This is the day that Canada gained its independence • Recognition of a collective will • A lot of NS started to talk about how they have a unique distinct heritage, more loyal to Britain then the Canada’s • Trying to make argument that peoples in colonies were the same • Negotiations included: o Quebec guaranteed 65 sets – no rep by pop un Quebec o Railroads to connect Maritimes and Canada • Could only be modified by British House of Commons o Case until the constitution was repatriated in 1980 o Peace and welfare for the confederated province o Divided the powers of the government between the federal and provincial government • 1867, the country that came out of the BNA Act (NS, NB, Quebec and Ontario) was rather small and fairly powerless entry Louis Riel o Led Metis Resistance o Fled into exile in 1870s before he could be arrested o Quebec MPs and residents petitioned for his pardon o Wanted anemisty to be granted o Treatment = discrimination o Activities in Exile: o Ran as an independent for riding of Provencher in 1873 and won o Re-elected in 1874 o Disguised himself to go to Ottawa and sign the registry o Struck from registry, but he ran again and won again o Riel made the point that he was elected by the people, he had support, not the criminal the government was trying to make him seem as o Officially pardoned in 1875 o Moved to Montana – US politics, had a family o His memoirs and records of people that knew him spoke of his visions that he talked about  Was he suffering from mental illness? o NW Rebellion o A Call from Batoche o Returned with the leaders to Batoche in July 1884 o Riel saw this as a calling, a mission he had to go o Reasoned approach to negotiation, fierce oration o Committee began to draw up list of grievances  Sent to Ottawa in December 1884 o As he waited responses from Ottawa, his speeches became less moderate  Government responds: take a census, establish a commission to study grievances  Many were not satisfied  Riel did no accept this – advocated taking up arms • Church did no agree and he discredited  Rumors of troops (500 heavily armed) – only sent 100 • Riel and his supporters formed provisional government of Saskatchewan and demanded surrender of Fort Carlton, NWMP base in area Free Trade – reciprocity • Reformers were Liberal in their outlook o More free trade o Less control from Britain o Less protection and tariffs o More land to settlers o Representative government • To encourage free trade, negotiated a reciprocity agreement with the US in 1854 o Natural and agricultural products (wheat timber and coal) could be admitted duty free within the US o Increased by 30% (mostly in Upper Canada therefore they benefited more) o Some manufactures now were mad having to compete with US where production costs were lowers o Colonial governments still passed new tariffs against American goods o 1866 US decides not to renew the treaty W.L. Mackenzie • William Lyon Mackenzie o Leader of the rebellion o Newspaper man- owned newspaper  Colonial advocate o Expelled for libeling members of the Tory party  He was always able to get re elected • Governor General Mackenzie to take reigns of government • As a result of the scandal o Opposition party – liberals – introduce legislation for secret ballots at elections  1874 Federal election first to use secret ballots 0 supposed to discourage bribery (it was already illegal) o Opposition party begins to form its own platform – liberal  Conservative had dominated HOC since Confederation and there had been a coalition party in order to support the idea of union  Liberals were more open to the idea of free enterprise, willing to allow private companies outside of Canada to connect up to the CPR  Liberal was in the hands of Mackenzie (1874-78) – presented himself as more honest and devoted to small government and the free hand of the market Shiners War • A lot of completion for jobs, and was violent (ex. 1835-45 had groups of Irish men competing for jobs with groups of French Canadians in Ottawa and both have been employed on the Rideau canal, all ended up at the end of the canal and led to violent clashes – shiners war) • Irish were vocal and wanted better working conditions, but they had no working rights and employers were able to call the police to suppress any protest • Condition were horrible, many men died from accident or illness • When Irish were upset, colonial authorities blame their Irish character Lachine/ Welland /Rideau Canal • Lachine Canals = power Chinese Exclusion Act (Head Tax) ­ September 1878, BC legislature forced ever Chinese person over 12 years to pay 10$ every three months for a residency permit. ­ Railway labor shortages and (brief) cooling of anti Chinese Racism… o Est. 10 000 beaded to build the BC section; only 400 white men available o Workingman’s protection association petitioned against “Mongolian” labor on the railway. o In 1882, Macdonald accepted Chinese workers for the sake of getting the railway finished. ­ 1885: act to restrict and regulate Chinese immigration into Canada or the Chinese Immigration act. o Probably could have just done it to BC ­ Proposed a head tax of 50$ to all new Chinese Immigrants o Chinese Exclusion act – 1923 ­ Head tax made it more difficult to come in, but didn’t really stop them from coming: they would go into debt to get head tax, and then would work in BC until they paid it off. o Problem was: they weren’t likely to bring their families with them: population with a growing disparity between men and women. o They weren’t concerned with building a British Columbia, but weren’t rooted there with their families back home. o Much less increase in Chinese Canadian population, but there still was. o Children of rich merchants, who in the early 1920’s were opposing gov. administration against them. Grosselle Orange Order Durham Report Quebec Conference Battle of York Part B: Maps (*** = Most likely candidates) Possible Map: Page 188 – British NorthAmerica 1791 *** o Pacific Ocean o Hudson’s Bay Co. Territory o Hudson’s bay o Rupert’s Land o Upper Canada o Lower Canada o New Brunswick o Newfoundland o Saint Johns Island o Nova Scotia o Atlantic Ocean Possible Map: Page 195 – The War of 1812 o Lower Canada o Upper Canada o Lake Michigan o Lake Superior o Lake Huron o Halifax o Atlantic Ocean Possible Map: Page 291 – Sites of the 1837-38 Rebellion o Lower Canada o Upper Canada o Lake Huron o Lake Erie o Lake Ontario o St. Lawrence River Possible Map: Page 276 – The United Province of Canada 1851 o Lower Canada o Upper Canada o Lake Huron o Lake Erie o Lake Ontario o St. Lawrence River Possible Maps: Page 404 – British NorthAmerica 1866 *** o Pacific Ocaean o BC o Ruperts Land o Canada West o Canada West o Atlantic Ocean o Labrador o Newfoundland o PEI o Nova Scotia o New Brunswick Part C: Essay Questions 1. Between the creation of New France in 1663 and the passing of the BNAAct in 1867, the development of European settlements was shaped by the imperial priorities of Paris and London and the goals ofAboriginal people and settlers. Discuss the relative influence of imperial goals,Aboriginal priorities and settlers’ desires. Which were more influential in changing Northern North America into the Country of Canada? Justify your answer with examples (at least one from each of the 17 , 18 and 19 centuries). Thesis. Id argue that although the French were first to settle because of the need for more land, wealth and power, however, it was the British who were more influential in changing NA into the Country of Canada because they were the first to establish official legislations regarding relationships between theAboriginals and the French, and ultimately led Canada into confederation. Why there was a desire for imperialism  Circumstances in Europe 1. Poverty a. 100mil people in the 16 C in Europe b. Population density i. Population was increasing, and land was becoming more scarce c. Agricultural population – and many poor in comparison to the few who were wealthy i. 75% of population relied on small farms ii. Rented land iii. Little surplus in production iv. Rhythm of life = dictated by seasons d. Hard life of toil, disease i. Families had large families because so many children and young adults die ii. Began working at young ages, laborers, domestic agents e. Decreasing standard of living i. Very little education ii. Due to lack of land 2. Authority and hierarchy a. Roman Catholic Church dictated religious beliefs i. Peasants paid tithes to the church ii. Religious intolerance led to wars b. Monarchs increasingly powerful in the 16 C – exerted more control over the lives of others i. Henry VIII of England – suppressed Catholicism ii. Appointed courts, handed down decrees, raising armies iii. Taxes • Finance armies – on lords and nobility 3. Innovation a. Merchants, artisans, intellectuals – live in towns i. Neither peasants nor nobility – somewhere in the middle b. Growing role of towns i. Centers of universities – science and philosophy (radical ideas that question the way the Church explains the universe) c. Renaissance – “rebirth” i. Appreciation for human achievement
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