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2JO3 Midterm Review

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McMaster University
Bonny Ibhawoh

African History 2J03 MidtermIntroduction multiracialmultiethnic 55 countriesthink of Africa as a continent as opposed to a country over 1000 ethnic groups and languages vast geographical differencesgrasslands woodlands savannahs deserts semideserts mountains etcGeography is important to history increasing desertificationAncient Egyptians had paintings of Giraphs Hippos etc so there is a belief that Africa was once TropicalHistorical Notions of Africa Hugh TrevorRoperIn future history to teachstating that Africa has no history yet intellectuals didnt have tools to excavate history of nonEuropeansbelieved that history began when people began to writePrimitive Africa a place without change Static Africa Ancient Tribescan see how our ancestors lived Some truth but problematic when becomes definitionWildDangerous Where you could encounter nature at its wildest formvast jungles and deserts People are also wild and dangerous Again some truth A vast geographical climate so does hold various species of Animals Euros encountering Aboriginals soft vs Dangerous tribes classify this Exotic Stresses the difference between Africans and other Human societies When something is different there is a tendency to see it as exotic Difference as the definition of the otherproblematicproject red image contrast between the known and the exoticUnspoiled pure and untainted by the evils of the modern worldPure in its essence Environmentalists closeness to land pure in thoughts spiritual Undamaged from excavation of natural resourcesthe gods must be crazy metaphor for how exterior forces are coming into pure Africa and creating HavocUtopian Africa idealized Africa idealism and identity Result of African slave tradelarge African Diaspora therefore homeland seen as utopiaplace free from all the troubles of the diasporasconstructed identity based on what we choose to rememberBroken Africa place war sickness and starvationAfropessimism nothing will ever work in AfricaAntidote to notions complexity diversity dynaminism recognize complexityAboriginal peoples who want to maintain identity but also people who do not wish to maintain the identity we can change we can have multiple identities cultures changeutopian and unspoiled Africa saying that people dont have the capacity to changeAfrica and Human Evolution Africa as a cradle of Humanityfossil evidence and genetic studies wasnt always acknowledged that we all came from Africa Origin of Speciesemphasize common ancestry survival of the fittest Human palentology and archaeologyoldest human fossils found in Eastern and Southern Africa various stages of development1Australopithecines5millions YBP2 Homo Halibilies clever man3 million YBPuse tools period fire was discovered3Homo Erectus upright man1 million YBPmade migration even further easier began to leave Africa4Homo Sapiens Wise man120 000 YBPfully developed Why migrate May have been enough land but was there enough fooddwindling resources tools and language development allowed for better conquering land therefore migrate further
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