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Fall 2010

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Ann Pearson

History 2T03 PreConfederation Canadian History Fall 2010DrPearsonHuman Occupation Ways of knowing the way cultures understand the world Dictates how one interacts with each other Stories and myths that contain clues of how one is suppose to act Conflict with each otherrecognize and learn or suppress When Europeans and North Americans came into contact both cultures were very confident Euroexploration and religion Aboriginals very connected to the land MiKmaq origin storylearns from the earth and the environment Iroquois story of the league Political and cultural alliance to end war Huron who went elsewhere because Hurons rejected message of peace the PeacemakerConfederacy of 5 nationsCondolence ceremonywarfarecycleDeathgriefreplace dead Wampum belts depicted agreement that had been symbolically made Longhousedwelling place of Iroquoissymbolic of anything that brings people together like leagues Great law that governed confederacy was never written down What we know about precontact history came from oral traditionswasnt recognized for a long time because it was believed that history wasnt history until it was written down Ethno history combines anthropology and history to get proud understanding of aboriginals Combine field work oral stories European sources etc recovering what is useful and piecing those things togetherusing what is available to us to try and understand what was less understoodRobert McGui articlehow historical perspective is changingUp streaming listening to stories and use to hypothesize what might have happened beforeAboriginal history should not be looked at as prehistory They stand on their own so they should be looked at and appreciated on their own Contact Iroquoian and Algonkian are language and cultural groups Montagnais Quebec City Algonquin Ottawa River valley MiKmaq Main land Nova Scotia Nomadic primarily hunters and gathers that settle into temporary summer settlements with many clans but broke up into family based hunting groups in the winterHuron Lake Simco Georgian Bay Confederacy of Four nations called Wendat Live in longhouses farmers farm in fields that surround their village engage in extensive trade enemies of the IroquoisFamily and clans are central to both groups because they structure day to day relationships Religious beliefs are very important because they also structure life and ways of knowingCorrect behaviour is essentialpositive social relationships Belonging in a group did not depend on ethnicity but rather by action You can become apart of one group by acting like that groupFrench began exploring due to competition Francois Ifund expeditions to conquer lands 1524 Giovani de Verrazzan cruised from the Carolinas to New Found land and missed all access 1534 Jacque Cartier sailed to the Americas to find and prepare French settlement He met Iroquois band who were already familiar with the Europeans and there trading practicesCartier became head of a large settlement in which they used convicts to populate After two years the French were forced to with draw because they were ill prepared Did not attempt settlement again for 60 years Moved to try and conquer Brazil and Florida Brazil time of civil warHuguenots fighting Catholics and dynastic issues The attempt to establish colonies in Brazil failed because of the religious civil wars Florida cultivated native support allied with the natives against the SpanishCharles II decided it was not a good idea to use prisoners to populate settlement instead they looked to young men who were not interested in farming and families Three failed attemptsth Henry 4 won religious wars and renew interest in colonizing He commissioned French noblemen to engineer and finance large trading companiesbuild wealth for FranceSamuel de Champlain optimistic about profit offered by New Franceth Unoccupied landssauvage 17 c menpeople of the woods living outside of societyused this term to explain people that they did not understand the otherstory of squeamish and Vancouver in the textbookth Early 17 C two settlements that succeeded1 Acadia Nova Scotia New BrunswickPort Royal French settlement in Acadia served as trading post Good position because of the access to North Atlantic Originally failed and was abandoned but then reopened Religious missionariesLes Dvousprovided funding when profits failed Acadia developed very slowly 2 Quebec City Primarily a trading post Was in a strategic position because you could see if anyone was coming up the river It also served a diplomatic role because it was where the French interacted with natives The Montagnier were trading and military allies with the FrenchBattle of Lake Champlain 1609 beginning of excess warfare with the Iroquois This affects the settlement and French dependence on native allies Documents1A Micmac responds to the FrenchChrestien LeCercq2Of LawsBaron De Lahontan3How the Squamish Remember George VancouverNew France Before 1663 Alliances with the natives gave the French power that the British did not havebalance of power Other French colonies Caribbean sugar plantations that relied on Slaveryexport commodity farming New Found Land North shore was the French shore Successes of New France depended on trade good will and native alliances From native perspective good dealrare and valuable items that they could not get anywhere else Trade led to further alliances even intermarriage but neither groups wanted to join the other groupTrade continued while both groups maintained their identity Natives maintained independence and got what they needed trade cooperation and diplomacy French created understanding and power over enemies would prove to be vital during the Wars of Conquest of America Disease had a huge impact on the natives population and culture It made the natives dependent on the French for survival The effects of disease increased when Religious missions became important in the coloniesNatives live like French changing how one lives impacts how one identifies themselves Reductions missionary villages reduce native peoples way of life to living like the French Indigenous forms of Christianityadapted into their cultures The Iroquois also effected by disease but dealt with it through war Iroquois Wars Fighting to establish own control over fur trade Creative response to destruction of the epidemics Wage wars of destruction on Hurontry to adopt them to obtain prisoners Mourning Wars sparked by loss of life allowing people to maintain population therefore their strength and strategy New France Revenge of New France French were at war with the Iroquois who had the upper hand Fur trade colonies struggled to make money and also largely failed to establish settler colonies Catholic church was flourishing disease helped strengthen the Church because it broke down indigenous culture so they experimented with Christianity French women nuns began arriving and setting up various institutionsMarie de lincarnation learned native language and wrote montagne dictionary
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