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History Exam Review

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McMaster University
John Weaver

History Exam World’s Oceans and Winds account for spread of European trade and colonial enclaves  Crosby o Trial and Error – God Liked Symmetry –Bartholomeu Dias found the South Atlantic wind system is like the North Atlantic flipped upside down o Iberian sailors used the ‘volta’ as a template to plot their courses to Asia to the Americas, and around the world o In fifteenth century portugeuse navigators continued past the canaries down the African coast along desert and jungle shores trading with Africans for gold pepper and slaves, 1460 they colonized Cape Verde Islands o Portugeuse came upon rich islands of Fernando Po and Sao Tome and transformed into new Madeiras staffed with blacks o Columbus using his knowledge of winds lead him to the West Indies, dropped to canaries then turned west  Brook o Dutch found faster trade route round cape bring them to Indonesia In what ways does previous answer provide inadequate answer for European empires  Technology o Vessels were needed that were large enough fast enough maneuvarable enough to carry a worthwhile payload of freight and passengers across ocean o Equpiments was needed to find courses across oceans while out of sight of land o Weaponary that could be be carried on ship yet still effective  Motivation to expand o Plunder and exploration for riches o Brook- Desire for luxury goods – Asian Stuff  Go into more detail  Warfare Comment on how plunder/Raid and Trade is a substantial theme of Global Connections  VOC: Trade and Raid  South American Exploitation (Diamond)  Slaves from Africa  Sugar plantations= Plunder and exploitation of the land  Counter would be Settlement colonies Comment on the limits and frictions on the interconnected world that was advanced by empires  Friction between the colonialists and those conquered o Benefit Europeans at the expense of those they conquered  Africa? o Maybe the way the divided the land went against the African tribal system o Diseases kept them from permanently settling  Host Country Government and the colonial activities on the new settlements (weaver) o America, constant expansion o Voortrekkers in South Africa  China not being expansionist What were some leading enthusiasm and ideas animating empire builders
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