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History - Exam Terms.docx

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Bonny Ibhawoh

Marxism: Karl Marx  One of most important political theorists in the world  Theory: productive forces (technology, material resources, labour) determined economic relationships  New production forces changed economic relationships  New classes emerged  Class conflicts would continue until communism was established  Conditions of workers under capitalism would grow worse  Socialism/communism as articulated by Karl Marx  Materialist interpretation of History  Dialectical view of social change  Critique of Capitalist development  Widely accepted in Europe  These ideas did not succeed in the end  Like Leninism, Stalinism, Marxism ideology was eroded with the collapse of the Soviet system Socialism  Socialists in Europe and US want to replace capitalism  Want to replace by votes not by violence  Common/public ownership of the means of production  Relatively equal power relations  Reduction/elimination of hierarchy Capitalism  Private ownership of means of production  Competitive Market and profits Nationalism  Learned emotional loyalty that individuals direct toward a group with common bonds to them (ex. from the same country, religion, history) th  Spread around world in 20 century  Usually a divisive force  Dominant groups would take over minorities  Boxer Rebellion in China  One of most dramatic events in 1900  “Boxers” surrounded place that housed diplomatic community Imperialism  Small number of industrial nations extended economic/political control over rest of world  Imperialism fueled by: o Economy: Western and Japanese industrialists searched for new markets, cheap labour, industrial raw materials, agricultural products, places for investment (wanted to take over places where could produce things cheaply) o Nationalism: countries had urge to compete with other nations to become most powerful o Strategy: control of key waterways, ports, military outposts (ex. British took over Suez Canal as trade route)  Westerner’s thought white race was superior  Imperialists believed that West would dominate world forever  Entire societies in Africa, Asia, Latin America were modified or destroyed  Conquered peoples were always changed Social Darwinism  Herbert Spencer: survival of the fittest should be applied to competition among cultures, nations, people  Superior cultures should control and eliminate inferior cultures  France conquered Algeria and tried to get rid of local traditions, language, religion  French tried to argue there was no such thing as Algerian nation  French assimilation policy  How British and French treated Africans/Indians Scramble for Africa  The European Scramble for Africa  Why the scramble for Africa? o Demand for raw materials o Improvement in shipping o Military technological advantage o Civilizing mission o 1847: the discovery of Quinine (cure for Malaria)  1912: European nations controlled almost all of Africa  Only Liberia and Ethiopia were independent  Industrial development increased demand for raw material from Africa  Shipping improvements reduced transportation costs  Africans resisted  More than 25 conflicts between Europeans and Africans before World War I  Created hostilities among Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy (they settle conflicts peacefully)  Fashoda incident: o British get to Fashoda and France already there o Both want control over Nile o France backed down and gave British the Nile Valley for the Sahara The Berlin African Conference 1884-85  14 nations met at Berlin Colonial Conference to decide fate of the Congo in Africa  Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway, Turkey, and the United States of America  European colonial powers agree on “first come, first served”  Power that occupied Africa and told others had possession of it  Mutual recognition of territories  Boundaries divided Africa into fifty irregular countries  Divided coherent groups of people  Merged together people who did not get along  Split up African cultures  African resistance to European Imperialism: the cause Archduke Franz Ferdinand  June 28 1914: Serbian nationalist assassinated Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand in Bosnia  Shot in backseat of an open car  Assassin: Gavrilo Princip  Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia  By August most of major European powers were involved in World War I  Was the tipping point for World War I  Nationalism: wanted to defend and be loyal to their country  Two European alliances were what caused World War I  After assassination, Austria wanted to crush threat to empire  Austria made sure Germans backed them The Moroccan Crisis  Germany did not like the Entente  Triple Entente: Russia, France, Britain / Serbia, Italy, Japan, US  Thought that challenging France for the control of Morocco would split it up  Conflict between Germany and France  France was there first and then Germany came and wanted to take over  Underscored the need for the Berlin Conference  Were very close to war  British and Russians were prepared to back the French  Was eventually resolved (Germany was scared because had less allies)  Imperialism  Berlin Conference  How that plays into discussion of imperialism in the course British Dreadnoughts  Most powerful battleship every built  All countries were building up their armies in the years leading up to WWI  Military contests heightened hostility and mistrust among nations Schliefen Plan  Plan made by Germany  Germans argued that their plan was nationalistic to try to make a better Germany (in second world war)  Key factor in peace options and war plans of several nations  Germany assumed it could not succeed in war against both Russia and France  Decided to knock out France first by invasion through Belgium  Then would defeat Russians  Germans put most of troops against France  Assigned limited forces to hold off Russians  Germans wanted to encircle the French  This meant Russia had to divert German troops to Russian front before France could be defeated  Great Britain would be brought into war because wanted Belgium free from French or German control  Caused the huge stalemate of WWI Battle of Ypres  First battle: o October – November 1914 o Germans attempted to penetrate British lines near Ypres to reach English Channel o Could not advance for 3 years  Second battle: o April – May 1915 o Germans were successful o Partly because of gas attack o First major use of poison gas in the war o Ypres still remained under British control  Third battle: o July – November 1917 o British advanced only 5 miles after dropping more than 4 million shells  Use of chlorine gas: second battle of Ypres 1915 o Hague convention 1899 and 1907: Laws of War (was supposed to prevent a first world war but every law was violated) o Banned the use of certain types of modern technology in war o Bombing from the air, chemical warfare and hollow point bullets 14 Points  America wanted government to adopt policy of isolation  Wanted to be separate from Europe  Wilson wanted America to concentrate on itself  Wilson brought forth peace plan in January 1918 (Fourteen Points) o First goal: prevent future wars by eliminating practices that caused current war (trade barriers, interference with freedom of the seas, secret diplomacy, colonial tensions, arms races) o Second goal: aimed at settling problems in Europe o Third goal (most important): League of Nations to preserve peace in the future (all countries must belong to League of Nations) o Countries must seek to reduce weapons and armed forces o One nationality should not have power to govern another o Nations should be able to govern themselves  Allies eventually agreed League of Nations  US President Woodrow Wilson stressed importance of creating a League of Nations  At Paris Peace Conference of 1919  Failure of President Woodrow Wilson’s Idealism: 14 Points o First world war ends on hopeful note o League of Nations o Wilson was very idealistic o Points were very reasonable points to address roots of the First World War (ex. alliances, secrets, etc.) o United States never joins it  Failure of the League of Nations and the International System o Rivalries among European Powers o Japanese attack on Manchuria 1931 o Italy’s invasion of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) 1931 Treaty of Versailles  Peace settlement signed after WWI in 1918  Between Germany and the Allies  Treaty satisfied everyone o the side of the Allies  Took away power of Germany  Stop communist expansion  Restricted German army to 100,000 men and were not allowed tanks  Had to admit full responsibility for causing the war  Had to pay for the destruction of the war  Humiliated Germany  Instilled hostility and eventually triggered the causes of the second world war Appeasement Policy  Appeasement Policy: Failure to take decisive action against aggression o Hitler: “If the French had then marched into the Rhineland, we would have had to withdraw with our tails between our legs.” o If there had been swifter response at very beginning may have stopped war  War weariness following World War I o British PM Neville Chamberlin: “Peace in our time”  The yearning and aspiration for peace did not work  US Policy of Neutrality o Arose from its’ history  Feeling that Germany had been treated too harshly in Versailles  Had steps taken by Germany been taken by any other country they would have been stopped faster Blitzkrieg  German for “lightning war”  Concentrate overwhelming force of artillery and weapons at high speed to break through enemy lines  Proceed without regard to anyone else  Goal to keep enemy off balance and not let them respond effectively at any point  Germany used when invaded Poland in 1939  Very effective in WWII  Dependent on: o Surprise penetration o Enemy unpreparedness  Concepts of Blitzkrieg form basis of present-day armored warfare  Contributed to most of Germany’s successes in WWII Concentration Camps The Final Solution Kuomintang  Means the Chinese nationalist party  Republican movement  Became China’s first democracy  Overcame warlords o One of consequences of the influences of the imperialist societies was the breakdown of the government o It was not in the interest of the western imperial powers for China to have a centralized government o As long as China was ruled by them they did not need one o Yat-Sen wanted to create a more cohesive China and challenge the Warlords who had taken over  Reunited China  Sung-Yat Sen  KMT wants change: nationalist (but more aligned with the West, what can be done by a constructive alignment with the West)  Nationalist (KMT) reforms 1928-1937 o Unification/nationalism; modernization; industrialization; education, legal reforms; emancipation of women; “rights recovery:  Limitations of KMT: authoritarian and antidemocratic; no land reforms; corruption; economic decline o This opened up and opportunity for the Communist Party Intellectual Revolution  China thought it could get territories back from Germans because fought with Allies in WWI  Warlord government made deal with Japanese  Offered them German colonies for financial support  Treaty of Versailles would not honor China’s claims  The tipping point was the Treaty of Versailles and the humiliation revolving this for China  The cause was basically humiliation  The May Fourth Movement: May 4, 1919 May Fourth Movement  May 4 , 1919: students protested awarding Peking to Japan  5,000 students from Peking University hit streets  National Peking University was center of intellectual revolution  Group of faculty and students reexamined old traditions/systems  Part cultural revolution, part social movement  Protesting against Versailles Treaty  Revived KMT and started Chinese Communist Party (CCP)  A catalyst for founding of Chinese Communist Party  Marxism was seen as workable revolutionary ideology  Set China on it’s revolutionary path  May Fourth Movement became nationwide protest movement  Forced government not to sign Treaty of Versailles  Showed widespread nationalist and anti-imperialistic feelings  China joined the League of Nations  Results of May Fourth Movement: o Political/intellectual activism in China o Revitalized KMT o Female students won admission to previously all-male universities Long March  Chiang Kai-shek became Sun’s successor after he died in 1925  Chiang began Northern Expedition to unify China  Chiang’s army conquered all warlords in path  KMT and CCP cooperated with each other as long as both were weak  CCP wanted to help KMT until it was more powerful  Chiang acted first and expelled CCP from KMT  Killed many members of CCP ad expelled Soviet advisers from China  All of China was unified under KMT  KMT armies launched four Extermination Campaigns against Communists  Mao’s guerrilla tactics and peasant support defeated KMT  Fifth Extermination Campaign was won by Chiang and KMT  Men and women of CCP army and government began 6000 mile march from southern China to northwest  Had to constantly fight off KMT  Long March took 370 days  Made it to Yenan far from Chiang’s army Great Leap Forward  After second world war  Mao Zedong wanted to create society of “collective man”  Wanted to reshape behavior and thinking of everyone  Made new marriage and divorce laws gave women more rights  Citizens had to attend meetings to learn Marxist ideology  People forced to study Mao’s thoughts and memorize/repeat his sayings  Force was used to ensure obedience  First Five-Year Plant: stressed building up heavy industry and collectivizing agriculture  This did not succeed  Mao initiated the Great Leap Forward: o Mass mobilization of labour o Establishment of communes o Building of backyard furnaces to smelt iron  GLF brought disaster, money loss and starvation Indian National Congress  1885 The Amritsar Incident/Massacre  April 1919  Ten thousand people gathered at a garden in city of Amritsar  Included many women and children  Assembled to conduct meeting  Peacefully protesting against arrest of two leaders of Indian National Congress  People gathered were unarmed (because was peaceful protest)  Edward Dyer (British General) ordered men to open fire on crowd  Garden only had narrow gate to get in and out  Plac
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