Soviet Communism to Stalinist Dictatorship.docx

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Stephen Heathorn

Soviet Communism to Stalinist Dictatorship The Struggle for leadership (1924-1927) • Poland had become separated from Russia • Internally the Russian communist leadership is established and created the new Economic policy o Russian economy is devastated by World War 1 o Millions of Russians starve due to lack of food  Russia needs to provide its people bread o Implements free market capitalist policies for the purpose of economic gain • Lenin dies o 1922: Lenin has a stroke and becomes disabled (?)  There is a constant struggle for leadership as he is unable to lead o 5 key leaders of the Bolchavics: Bukharin, Kamenev, Stalin, Trotsky, Zinoviev  Each have different ideas about how to run communist Russia  Divided between those looking at internal solutions (create utopia on its own) and the idea that soviet union needs to spread communism because it cannot sustain itself on its own • Trotsky: chief general of the Red Guard o Idea: The only way that Russia will ever safe is if we expand communism • Bukharin: intellectual o Argues for an internal market that will Russia ahead • Zinoviev and Kamenev: intellectual generals o Believe in a middle ground • Stalin: does not have an intellectual background o Stalin has a ruthless determination to be leader o Puts people into positions of power that will support him  Does become an intellectual: argues for the identity of the Soviet Union- how do we deal with all these ethnicities  Believes that we don’t need to foster revolutions internationally  Creates a network of political connectedness in Russia • Stalin directs 1 party against the other and discredits both of them • Targets Trotsky: Stalin allies against Kamenev and Zinoviev and discredits Trotsky and his ideas o Isolate Trotsky and push him away from the party ideologies, and the central committee – becomes sidelines  When Stalin comes into power, Trotsky is expelled • Targets Bukharin: most intellectually rigorous of the 5 o Bukharin argues for internal markets but is isolated by being ignored, and discredited by the “alliance” • Stalin then targeted the weakest Kamenev and Zinoviev o Isolate and target – bully strategy  STALIN WEAVED HIS WAY TO LEADERSHIP  The least likely to succeed, succeeds  1927-1939 Stalin is in charge • Russian ideologies: o There is an open discussion in the committee but once something is decided there can be no alternative views  Every conflicting view is outlawed  This underlines the concept of open discussion • Russia is a century behind industrially speaking o Stalin argues that for communism to succeed, it needs an industrial economy  We need it, and we must get there as soon as possible  The goal is to have this great industrial leap forward • Need to transform agricultural system o 1928: The Great Transformation  Gets rid of the land and bread slogan- takes land away from the peasants: collectivization program  Big farms will be more efficient than small ones- no private property- land is owned in common (COMMUNISM)  Peasants didn’t want
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