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McMaster University
Megan Armstrong

History 1A03 Exam Review Hernan Cortes, Letter (1520)  Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused fall of Aztecs  Brought much of mainland Mexico under Spanish Rule under the rule of the King of Castille  Was sent to Mexico in 1518, left in 1519  Letter back to Charles V, King of Castille  Explains wonders of this new world -- why this expedition will help Spain  Montezuma -- leader of the Aztecs  Forces Catholicism on natives  Wrote these letters asking to be acknowledged for his success instead of punished for mutiny --" written with purpose of putting efforts in favourable light  Colonization of new world  significant due to westernization of the Americas --> brought Christian thought, European influence to the Aztec empire  also significant because it reveals much about the structure of Aztec society as a primary source, such as their economy and cities The Philosophes (1740-1790)  Group of elite in France, popularizers of Enlightenment thought (significant)  Moralists: how to make society better; "progress"  Baron de Montesquieu (d 1755): The Persian Letters  divided France into 3 classes: monarchy, aristocracy, commons  separation of power: executive, legislative, judicial  Voltaire (d 1778): wealthy Parisian family  felt that Church was abusive, ignorant  believed in freedom of speech, religion, property, governed before law  Denis Diderot (d 1784)  All believed humans were malleable (they could be changed)  Critical of French society  Believed thinkers should change society  contributed to Enlightenment thought (The notion of progress, how to make society better) Divine Right  Royal + political legitimacy: monarch is subject to no Earthly authority, right to rule comes directly from God  given down hereditary  Only God can judge an unjust king  James I in England (1603-1625) and Louis XIV in France (1661 personal rule-1715)  Tudors  Significant because this notion gave basis to Louis XIV's absolutism in France as well as James I of England  Significant because it was the ruling ideology of Europe during it's time period in 17th century and early 18th century  It led to writers such as the Philosophes in France wanting political change  hereditary rule became unsuccessful in France due to unpopularity, led to Fr. Rev during time of Louis XVI Louis XIV (Rule was from 1661-1715)  Timeless monarch, control freak -- wanted control over all minister aka the sun king  chose ministers who would be obedient, from "new men"  "new men" is the robe nobility, they were the ones who Louis and his ministers would choose to be nobles, they rose up from lower class through wealth and education  "I am the state" --> divine right, absolutism  Sought centralized state, eliminate feudalism  built Versailles to reduce power of nobles, bring them closer  Began personal rule after death of chief minister Mazarin in 1661  Many wars -- had a large professional army  crippled France financially, left France with high taxes, was hated as a result (SIGNIFICANCE, DISSATISFACTION EVENTUALLY LED TO FRENCH REVOLUTION THROUGH THE POVERTY OF THOSE IN PARIS)  eg. War of Spanish Succession  Expanded France -- mroe defensible  Patronzied arts, encouraged industry, marked birth of modern state  reflected Absolutism of time, divine right Versailles (1682-1789)  originally a hunting lodge  Permanent court -- 1682, 20km outside of Paris  Site where the French nobility had court, and where French royalty lived  Intended to visually impress as engineering feat; spectacle of power -- elaborated  showed that Louis was powerful (symbolic of his power)  Home to King, royal family, and short nobility (Nobles of the Sword) --> gave swords sense of importance  Louis developed court etiquette; authors and artists would go for patronage  Symbol of absolute monarchy  built during Louis XIV's reign  Significant, display of Louis' power, has nobles under his watch, gave swords sense of importance, symbol of absolute monarchy as well as its end since Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were moved out of there during the French Revolution, where the Tennis Court Oath was struck, where National Assembly was created in 1789 A Modest Proposal - Jonathan Swift (1729)  Written by Jonathan Swift, Irish satirist  Also author of Gulliver's Travels  Recommendation that the poor Irish should sell children as food to the rich  Shows calculations on why it would be beneficial  Appeals to authority "a very knowing American of my acquaintance"  1st part describes the situation in Ireland when starving begins  reader is unprepared for his ridiculous solution to an actual problem  A few mentions of England's mistreatment of Ireland  Later in article he brings up actual reforms he is looking for:  buying goods that are made in Ireland  "learning to love our country"  "quitting animosities"  honesty, industry, skill into shop keepers  Attacking people who came up with "overall" solution  Shows Enlightenment thought through humanist thought and the dehumanization of papists  "We're already willing to kill them as adults, why not kill them as children?"  significant because an assault of feudalism (you've already taken cattle, tax rights, take their children too because you've already taken everything they've produced)  advocates secular thought and a shift from feudalism Machiavelli, The Ancients (1517)  (1469-1527) Italian philosopher, humanist, writer during Renaissance  Discussion on classical history of early Romans  (is a chapter from his work - Discourses)  Provides lessons on how a Republic and structured  Significant as it is a central text on Republicanism  Advocates for Liberty in city-states, freedom from surrounding Empires  "They had seen that cities never increased in dominion or wealth unless they were free"  People were more devoted to freedom than in the past  (Can be attributed to difference in education)  Christianity defies humbleness, contemplatives as opposed to great glory, unsurpassed grandeur of soul  Machiavelli was the Medicis right hand man for first part of career, exiled for second half  In The Ancients he talks a lot about liberty  Today, we think liberty as the liberty of the individual, but Machiavelli wants state liberty. He doesn't want a tyrant coming in (since he was in control of Florence)  He wants the people to think he's talking about individual liberty so he can have an army in case the French attack Luther, Letter to the Archbishop [of Mainz] (1517)  (1483-1546) - author of the German translation of the Bible; Augustinian friar  Letter protests the sales of indulgences to fund new Cathedral  Believed that faith, grace and scripture were 3 important aspects of religion  Opposed Catholic view of faith, grace, and good works being able to 'save' one  Only truth is in scriptures, not Pope  Tone of letter can be read as fearful, however he seems ironic  Calls out the Church on their hypocrisy, carefully worded so he doesn't anger the papacy  Opposed fact Church was taking indulgences (could pay off time in purgatory)  But he believed that the church did not have the power to grant that kind of authority  Current dissatisfaction with Church meant many people saw Luther's message, which they agreed with  Important because it helped Luther to cause religious rift, leading to the rise of Protestant Reformation (in combination with printing press --> translated Bible) Calvin, Letter to the King (1535)  1509-1564  French theologian and pastor during Protestant Reformation  Development of Calvinism, promoted Reformation throughout Europe  Trained as humanist lawyer, broke from Church in 1530  Reformed Church in Geneva, minister at Stratsbourg  Letter to King Francis I of France  opens lightly - flatters, entreats  "bad men have risen to such a height"  adversaries say that people are the worst corrupters  true religion is delivered in the Scriptures (much like Martin Luther)  also calls Catholics out on the indulgences -- "vicars of gold" rather than "vicars of God"  Calvin's belief: Predestination (we are all doomed to the path that God gave to us since birth)  The more 'doom and gloom' version of Lutheranism  Significant because it was essentially the Calvinist version of Luther's letter  Inspired huguenots in france which led to wars of religion Petrarch (1304-1374)  lived when Renaissance became prominent in Italy  He was a poet and a clergyman  Hated universities at the time and the way 'they' wrote, called his era a 'dark age'  Felt studies at universities were too misguided --> focused too much on religion  Read from classical literature such as Cicero on how to live a virtuous life as a good and moral individual  Would begin to write in classical style (beauty of writing, changed rhetoric)  Live as the best person possible (generally in Christian sense)  Fascinated by classical authors such as Cicero; how they wrote and the focus on one's self, as well as classical patristic literature (Augustine, Jerome) -- Church fathers  Known of the Father of Humanism and the Father of the Renaissance  He was celebrated because path of writing became a virtuous one throughout the Renaissance  Important because he stirred interest in classical literature --> value of style and virtue  Classical texts were rediscovered  Development of new humanities education program --> humanism  Significant because he developed humanism, was the father of Renaissance, Lorenzo Medici, Paternal Advice (1491)  (1449-1492) unofficial ruler of Florence from 1469 till death  Humanist, art patron, politician  In Paternal Advice, Lorenzo tells his son (a Cardinal) to live a modest life  Also to be safe and don't talk that much because he's the youngest Cardinal  Also to listen a lot so he can learn more  managed to make his son Giovanni a cardinal at age 14 in 1489 (Pope Leo X -- 1513- 1521)  Warning to avoid luxury, vice  be grateful, have habit of communion + confession  People are envious, be careful not to slip  be a cardinal to model for the rest  humanist education  Why significant?  Significant because he doesn't avoid luxury and vice, leads to Reformation and Vatican's loss of power Robespierre, Terror and Virtue (1794)  (1758-1794) French lawyer, politician, important figure in French Revolution  leader of 12-man Committee of Public Safety, elected by National Convention and effectively governed France during radical phase of revolution  Committee unleashed reign of terror -- 238 men executed, 31 women, 5434 individuals awaiting trial  love of country includes love of equality  Virtue - love of country, laws  Terror -- justice, prompt, severe, inflexible = consequence of general principle of democracy applied to country's needs  Does your government resemble despotism? "Yes, as a the sword gleams in the hands of the heroes of liberty resembles that. With which the henchmen of tyranny are armed"  Terror was a time of revealing the enemy within France (no mercy in it  Very careful of language he selected  Redefines the word 'virtue', applies it with terror  Connecting 'virtue' with this idea of Republicanism  In previous weeks, virtue was with the ideas of godliness and trying to get to Heaven by means of good works  Now it's not relationship with God, it's relationship with the state  Associated with the Cult of the Supreme Being (so it's the state taking care of the people)  Talks about 'the People' as a proper noun  First time in history, we are seeing the people as an entity, not as a commodity  The right to rule is directly from God (the idea that humans have natural rights, directly from God)  Legitimacy: Fr. Revolution and Enlightenment deal with this. What makes a legitimate government?  Executions: social norm held by society, very regular during this period  During Absolutism, you are being condemned to death by the King, one person condemns you, one person kills you (a headsman)  Now your fate is decided upon by a committee, and you're executed by a machine, not by a person  Purity: a highly-loaded term, (Rwandan genocide)  In readings, if there's 'purity' used, there's usually something more to it  Robespierre mentions 'natural rights' a great deal, similar context of Hobbes  He feels justified in executing monarchs and pretty much anyone as long as it's good for society  Society > someone's natural rights  Violence of Revolution necessary for cleansing France  "Society owes protection only to peaceable citizens; the only citizens in the Republic are the republicans." Being Republican is virtuous  'If you're not with us, you're against us'  Why significant?  Significant because virtue was in context of the state rather than God now, and now we are seeing the people as an entity rather than a commodity as they were in the past (eg. Serfs), justified execution of anyone as long as it's good from society, society is more important that anyone's natural rights which goes against the declaration of the man, shift towards Machiavellianism Richelieu  Chief minister in France (d 1642)  restraining of power of nobility, made France strong centralized state  Religious reunification -- eliminate Hugenot  Weakening of sword nobility  recruited "new men" into government" (Robe nobility)  exile/remove noble governors  Developed spy network to look on nobility, catch them  Build larger, centralized navy, army  Religious contributions:  Edict of Nantes (1598): toleration for Calvinism  gra
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