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History 1A03 Exam Study Sheet.docx

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Megan Armstrong

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History 1A03 Exam Study Sheet Part I  Hernan Cortes, Letter - Conquistador, explorer and adventurer at the service of the Spanish Empire - He led the expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire - letter to Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1520 - his letters make out the city of Temixtitlan and Montezuma to be a great city and should be explored (“of many rare and wonderful objects it contains; of the government and dominions of Moctezuma, the sovereign: of the religious rights and customs that prevail, and the order that exists in this as well as the other cities appertaining to his realm”) - his motive was to convince Charles V that this city of Temixtitlan (Mexico) was a worthwhile investment, and that he should bring more ships over to the city - he thoroughly describes the things that he sees in Temixtitlan and talks highly about the city’s greatness - he wanted to take over the Aztec capital, showing the importance of colonization and power to the Spanish  A Modest Proposal - It is a satirical essay by John Swift written in 1729 - Swift (Englishman) was enraged at the treatment of the Irish people by the English - A Modest Proposal describe a cure to the economic troubles of Ireland by suggesting the selling of children for food - It was written anonymously and was trying to provoke a reaction towards the rich - This essay is very critical to the main themes that were important during the Enlightenment - Main themes: reason, liberty, progress, nature - It mocks how the idea of reason, a main theme in the Enlightenment, is taken into account over morality - Also critical to the way that the English has been treating the Irish  The Philosophes - French for “philosophers” th - Intellectuals leaders during the 18 century Enlightenment - Employed directly by the state to run its operations - They were popularisers of scientific thought for the Enlightenment - Wrote on issues such as education, health, economics, finance (especially taxation), justice, religion, and science - Work took form of essays, satires, critiques, dialogues, public letters and novelettes intended for specific occasions - Focused on how to make society better and believed that people needed to mould their own lives. Progress and change = good - Ridiculed many people and institutions, criticizing them as means of improvement  Machiavelli, The Ancients - Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) was a diplomat who served the restored Florentine republic from 1492 to 1512 and was exiled when the Medici returned in 1512 - His ides shaped the modern world – primacy of secular over religious interests(separated religious ethics from conduct of government), the realities of power politics, and the importance of national identity – in The Prince and The Discourses - Characteristic humanism training - Deep understanding of classical history  Divine right of kings - Is a political and religious doctrine of royal absolutism - A monarch is subject to no earthly authority, his right to rule directly from the will of God (divinely ordained rule) - The king was next to God, and rule is absolute (king is above the law) th th - Related to the value of absolutism in France during the 17 and 18 century  The Devil’s Pact - Witth craze: the Devil’s Pact was a contract (legal notion) - 17 century - Witches were thought to have made contracts with the devil - They were looking for black (mean spirited) magic; cursing and harmful magic - Bodies would be checked for marks from the devil (part of the “contract”) - Cultural context: socio-economic disorder, dualism (good vs. evil), apoclypticism, gender (women were vulnerable and threatening to patriarchy , Roman law (Devil’s pact) and the magistry  Louis XIV - Louis XVI was the king of France from 1661-1715, after the death of his chief minister Cardinal Mazarin - His reign of 72 years and 110 days is one of the longest in French and European history - Was embodiment of the early modern form of royal absolutism – monarchy by divine right - Set a permanent court, did not have to move to watch his people – more importantly the nobility, who could take power from crown if powerful enough (sign of power) - Example of his absolute power: took everything from Fouquet after he tried to pay himself too much - Created first modern army – uniform training, paid, infrastructure set up - Was never fully absolute. He could not penetrate his power deeply into society  Versailles - Engineering and architectural feat - It was an elaborate court ritual, which meant power - Louis XVI made Versailles his permanent court in 1682 (took eight years to complete), first standing, permanent court in Europe - Permanence was saying that he was strong enough that he did not need to move to remain in power - It was a symbol of absolutism in practice  Luther, Letter to the Archbishop - 1517 - Start of indulgence controversy (theme of reformation) - The corruption in the Church, selling of indulgences which Luther thought was dangerous - He believes that these indulgences are only fooling the people who buy them that that are free from all penalty and guilt, however he believes that they are not (false promises) - Makes people careless and fearless - Indulgences: papal doctrine for St. Peter’s Cathedral - They are the relinquishment of the punishments for sins because they have been forgiven. They lessen the time of purgatory and let them go straight to salvation (sure of salvation) - He wrote to the archbishop as he was one of the highest order in the church next to the pope - He wrote to him to have them stop the selling of indulgences  Calvin, Letter to the king - Followers, the French - believed that salvation comes from faith alone - No acts can save from eternal damnation - Gratitude for God’s mercy, some are saved (not faith alone) - Believed in predestination - He believes true religion derives from scripture - Accuses priesthood of false doctrine - He argued that his position came from the scriptures  Petrarch - 1304-1374 - First humanist – Father of Humanism, interested in Roman culture (Latin) - Looked at Cicero’s work, was his hero - He felt that university work was misguided (was a successful scholar at a univeristy) - Theme of Renaissance (learning to do something well, was living well – moulding character was living virtuous life) - He stirred interest in classical literature (important in Renaissance) - Resulted in new literary culture known as humanism (optimistic understanding of human nature) - Met new scholars and traded writings, rediscovering new classical texts in a Christian society  Richelieu - Cardinal Richelieu - 1585-1642 - With Louis XIV, goal was to unify French Kingdom under strong monarchy - He reduced the power of the sword nobility: recruiting “new men” into the government, and exiling/removing noble governors - Built a larger centralized navy, army - Tried to unify religion - Took away power from nobility, as powerful nobility took away from the crown (Louis XIV) - Tried to create a more absolute monarchy  Galileo - 1564-1642 - Turned private scientific discussion into public - Humanist, Italian mathematician - Challenged central doctrine of Protestant and Catholics (earth centered model) - They became upset, he could not call his findings “truth” and could only call Copernicus’ findings “theories” - Wrote in Italian to allow public to understand - Ordered to recant his views and placed on house arrest (which he did recant) - Very matter of fact about his findings: tries to show that his is truth – “and yet he does move” (apparently said)  Copernicus - 1473-1543 - Challenged earth-centered model - He felt that Ptolemy’s model was not mathematically correct, movements were more sensible if sun was centred - Very passive aggressive against church – it was a radical idea - His letter to the Pope challenged the idea (1543) but still looked up to and respected the Church  The Marsellaise - French national anthem, composed during French Revolution (1792) - By Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle,
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