History 2T03: Pre-Confederation Canadian History
- Ways of knowing: the way cultures understand the world. Dictates how one interacts with each other.
Stories and myths that contain clues of how one is suppose to act
- Conflict with each other = recognize and learn or suppress
- When Europeans and North Americans came into contact both cultures were very confident
Euro: $, exploration and religion
Aboriginals: very connected to the land
- Mi’Kmaq: origin story learns from the earth and the environment
- Iroquois: story of the league
- Political and cultural alliance to end war
- “the Peacemaker” Huron who went elsewhere because Hurons rejected message of peace
- Confederacy of 5 nations
-Condolence ceremony: warfare = cycle = Death grief replace dead
- Wampum belts: depicted agreement that had been symbolically made
- Longhouse – dwelling place of Iroquois symbolic of anything that brings people together like
- Great law that governed confederacy was never written down
- What we know about pre-contact history came from oral traditions wasn’t recognized for a long
time because it was believed that history wasn’t history until it was written down
- Ethno history: combines anthropology and history to get proud understanding of aboriginals.
Combine field work, oral stories, European sources etc, recovering what is useful and piecing those
- using what is available to us to try and understand what was less understood.
- Robert McGui article = how historical perspective is changing.
- Up streaming: listening to stories and use to hypothesize what might have happened before.
- Aboriginal history should not be looked at as “pre-history”. They stand on their own so they should be
looked at and appreciated on their own.
- Iroquoian and Algonkian are language and cultural groups:
- Montagnais: Quebec City
- Algonquin: Ottawa River valley
- Mi’Kmaq: Main land Nova Scotia
Nomadic, primarily hunters and gathers that settle into temporary summer settlements with
many clans but broke up into family based hunting groups in the winter.
- Huron: Lake Simco, Georgian Bay
Confederacy of Four nations called Wendat. Live in longhouses, farmers (farm in fields that
surround their village), engage in extensive trade, enemies of the Iroquois.
- Family and clans are central to both groups because they structure day to day relationships
- Religious beliefs are very important because they also structure life and ways of knowing.
- Correct behaviour is essential – positive social relationships
- Belonging in a group did not depend on ethnicity but rather by action. You can become apart of one
group by acting like that group.
- French began exploring due to competition
- Francois I – fund expeditions to conquer lands
1524: Giovani de Verrazzan cruised from the Carolina’s to New Found land and missed all
1534: Jacque Cartier sailed to the Americas to find and prepare French settlement. He met
Iroquois band who were already familiar with the Europeans and there trading practices.
- Cartier became head of a large settlement in which they used convicts to populate. After two years
the French were forced to with draw because they were ill prepared. Did not attempt settlement again
for 60 years. Moved to try and conquer Brazil and Florida
- Brazil: time of civil war Huguenots fighting Catholics and dynastic issues. The attempt to establish
colonies in Brazil failed because of the religious civil wars.
- Florida: cultivated native support; allied with the natives against the Spanish.
- Charles II: decided it was not a good idea to use prisoners to populate settlement, instead they
looked to young men who were not interested in farming and families.
- Three failed attempts
- Henry 4th won religious wars and re-new interest in colonizing. He commissioned French noblemen
to engineer and finance large trading companies build wealth for France
- Samuel de Champlain: optimistic about profit offered by New France
- Unoccupied lands “sauvage”: 17th c: men/people of the woods living outside of society =
used this term to explain people that they did not understand
- “the other” story of squeamish and Vancouver in the textbook
- Early 17th C: two settlements that succeeded:
1. Acadia: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick Port Royal: French settlement in Acadia
- served as trading post. Good position because of the access to North Atlantic. Originally failed and
was abandoned but then re-opened. Religious missionaries – Les Dévous – provided funding when
profits failed. Acadia developed very slowly
2. Quebec City
- Primarily a trading post. Was in a strategic position because you could see if anyone was coming up
the river. It also served a diplomatic role because it was where the French interacted with natives. The
Montagnier were trading and military allies with the French.
- Battle of Lake Champlain 1609: beginning of excess warfare with the Iroquois. This affects
the settlement and French dependence on native allies.
1. A Micmac responds to the French Chrestien LeCercq
2. Of Laws Baron De Lahontan
3. How the Squamish Remember George Vancouver
New France Before 1663
- Alliances with the natives gave the French power that the British did not have balance of power
- Other French colonies
- Caribbean: sugar plantations that relied on Slavery export commodity farming
- New Found Land: North shore was the French shore
- Successes of New France depended on trade, good will and native alliances
- From native perspective: good deal rare and valuable items that they could not get anywhere else
- Trade led to further alliances, even intermarriage but neither groups wanted to join the other group.
Trade continued while both groups maintained their identity
Natives maintained independence and got what they needed: trade, co-operation and
French: created understanding and power over enemies
- would prove to be vital during the Wars of Conquest of America
- Disease had a huge impact on the natives; population and culture. It made the natives dependent on
the French for survival
- The effects of disease increased when Religious missions became important in the colonies
Natives live like French: changing how one lives impacts how one identifies themselves
- Reductions: missionary villages: reduce native peoples way of life to living like the French
- Indigenous forms of Christianity adapted into their cultures
- The Iroquois also effected by disease but dealt with it through war: Iroquois Wars
- Fighting to establish own control over fur trade
- Creative response to destruction of the epidemics. Wage wars of destruction on Huron try
to adopt them to obtain prisoners Mourning Wars: sparked by loss of life allowing people to maintain
population therefore their strength and strategy.
New France: Revenge of New France
- French were at war with the Iroquois who had the upper hand
- Fur trade colonies struggled to make money and also largely failed to establish settler colonies
- Catholic church was flourishing: disease helped strengthen the Church because it broke down
indigenous culture so they experimented with Christianity
- French women (nuns) began arriving and setting up various institutions Marie de l’incarnation:
learned native language and wrote montagne dictionary
- Policy change: worried about the types of settlers that would come to the colony wanted to create
ideal catholic society
- Louie wanted to enhance the colony
1663: kicks out fur trading companies and takes over control himself
- Post 1663 experiment with building a settler colony
- Louie appoints new Governor General whose job was to insure security and maintain native allies
- Intendent: Jean Talon: look after day to day judiciary and economics of the colony
- Jean- Baptist Colbert – 1st minister
- becomes royal colony linked directly to monarchy
- wanted to form complete French culture: language, practice culture and Catholicism
- The Custom of Paris = law code used in the colony that was the same as the one used in Paris
- 1666: sends four military bands to deal with the Iroquois encountered a lot of empty villages that
they burnt down, destroying food for the summer
- 1667: Iroquois peace eventually lead to the Great Peace of Montreal (1701): peace between
French and five nation confederacy and France’s allied nations
New balance of powers
- Problem: how to set up settler colony:
- Filles du roy: Parisian orphan girls provided with money to travel and dowry $150 per year
for 10 years
- Policy of natural increase: have lots of babies
- Intermarriage with native population: hope to encourage French men to marry native women:
good way to convert to Christianity and increase population without sending settlers. Problem: native
women were not interested in marriage French men or becoming French
- push and pull factors:
- Push: religion, better life, new land
- Pull: climate, can’t own land, land problems
- Notre Dames des Victaires at Place Royal
- Women that arrived considered themselves to be missionaries
- Arguably offer more opportunities for women: less strict than Europe:
- allowed to inherit from husbands, became merchants and traders
- However, for the most part they were subject to the same expectations held in France.
1. Ordinance of 1728, Claude-Thomas Dupuy, indendant of New France:
- transcript of ruling.
- the miller was taking more flour then they were suppose to he is corrupt and showing
- indendant: not paying taxes because they go to other mill. He wants his cut from the other mill
and wants the judge to tell them they cant use any other mill
- verdict: will take grain. Have to pay ¼ ; cant use other mill what the seigneur says is final
Frontiers and Borderlands
1702-1713: War of Spanish Succession
1710: British conquest of Acadia
1713: Treaty of Utrect
1755: Fall of fort Beauséjour
1755-63: deportation of Acadians
- Borderlands: spaces between: places of intermixing, contact, exchange. Where people live, mix and
- Identity is fluid and exchangeable
- Métis began developing around French trading posts; made trade easier and helped alliances to
- Michilimakinac: permanent mixed blood population
- Trade and military posts were structured by trade. Became places of conflict
- Kaskaskia (1703): religious mission but location was good for trade therefore became trade and
military post where a community developed.
- 1717 was made apart of Louisiana
- Slave class in Canada
- intermixing, creativity, movement: people could come and go (ideas, ways of living)