HISTORY 3CG3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Winnipeg General Strike, Chanak Crisis, Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission
Course CodeHISTORY 3CG3
ProfessorAsa Mc Kercher
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- 1911: Borden comes to power under conservatives
- Canada and US to 1914
Week 3(a) WW1
- rapid increase in military involvement mostly from British Cans.
- was under Borden. Canada = no control over war; Britain declared
war on behalf of the whole empire 1914. Only control = how much
involvement In war.
- War measures act: gives authority to govt to do whatever necessary
for war (i.e. conscription) But borden promises no conscription.
Instead, volunteer promise.
- Black/aboriginal able bodied denied volunteering – recruiters often
turned blind eye to aboriginals.
- borden keeps sending people but has no control over military action
- Canada’s red scare.
- Rise of unions , unhappy feelings over industrial working conditions.
- Created want of collective bargaining, strikes, etc.
- Govt opposed radical unions – fear of communism.
- unions fined and jailed, leaders too. Employers allowed to
threaten with termination if unions came up.
- Rise of communism in Russia threatens Can (geographically close)
- Expedition to Russ. 1918 to fight Bolsheviks, nothing good came.
- Industry and strikes.
Possible concepts on exam?
-Residential schools (sept 15 lecture)
-WW1 (Sept 22 lecture)
oWar Measures Act: Aug 22 1914.
oYpres 1915: germans used poison gas for first time, killed Canadian regiment that was fighting against.
oCans sent more than 500,000 to the war but had no control over what they did there – were under Brits
oVimy Ridge: 1917 battle. 15,000 Cans against germans. Many wounded and died but were successful unlike the Brits and French.
Defining moment for Canadian independence – showed they were not only better than Brits, but also independent.
-Robert Borden: becomes PM in 1911 (conservative). Plays a significant role in WW1 involvement. Supported by Laurier in establishing
War Measures Act.
oPromises no conscription. Pro-british but upset that Can has no power/independence in the WW1. Instead he tries to raise volunteer
oAll Can volunteers are controlled by british overseas. Borden doesn’t even get info on what Can soldiers do. 1915 he demands the
right to information. i.e. like at Ypres in April 1915 when the Germans used poison gas on Cans for the first time ever.
oImposed censorship on the press to contain sensitive information – causing ban of non English publications cause gov’t has to read
and review everything – including letters from soldiers. (to prevent demoralization of citizens for war).
oHe essentially got laughed at for demanding information but continued to raise volunteer pledges – to 500,000 by 1916.
oMay 1917 = shortage of volunteers so conscription announced by borden. (Military Service Act) Criticized by the people who
earlier supported him – i.e. Laurier.
oElection of 1916 delayed due to war, scheduled in 1917 so main issue there was conscription. Borden wins due to pledging to give
women right to vote (who are related to soldiers). Quebec votes for liberals – don’t support him.
Until now conscription was exempt for farm workers. But 1918 Borden removes this, leading to huge protests.
1921 conservative election is lost because of conscription!
oGave Canada a voice in dominion post WW1!
oGeneral distrust towards them. Setting the issues of Chinese railroad workers and discrimination against Indian immigrants, the
racism continued until late in the twentieth century.
oWW1 = many Austro-hungarian and German immigrants in Can. So gov’t keeps more than 60,000 soldiers at home due to distrust.
1914: all these enemy aliens must report to gov’t for examination. Over 80,000 registered, others that didn’t or were
considered dangerous were put in work camps. (enemy aliens was what they were called)
No more german taught in schools, anything german named was changed (i.e. hamburgers -> nips) Anti-German
riots in Berlin, ON, so they changed name to Kitchener.
After WW1, drop in immigration due to fear of communist agents.
oIndustrial positions empty because of soldiers gone to war so women take up posts. (WW1) And over 3000 female
nurses working in war.
Women encouraged to buy victory bonds to support war, they could do so bc they worked. Also had right to
vote if related to soldier.
Venereal diseases act of 1918 makes it hard for women to have extramarital sex (slows down war work)
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