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HLTHAGE 1BB3 Midterm: Health and Aging 1BB3 Midterm Review

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Health, Aging and Society
Anju Joshi

1BB3 Final Exam Review Pre-Midterm: Chapter 1: -gerontology is the study of the aging population; social, biological, mental aspects of aging and aims to create a better life for clients; interdisciplinary -social gerontology: psychosocial and socioeconomic - environmental and practice related research -concern for learning about aging because aging is universal, demand for services, concern for the elderly -myths about aging: inactive lifestyle, decreased health and quality of life after retirement -stereotype: over generalization, prejudiced view, one sided -black sheep effect: stereotype own members -elderspeak -ageism: refers to two concepts: a socially constructed way of thinking about older persons based on negative attitudes and stereotypes about aging and a tendency to structure society based on an assumption that everyone is young, thereby failing to respond appropriately to the real needs of older persons. • internalization, age-based rationing, can drive our market, performance, self-confidence, exists alongside care and concern -prejudice: being biased against someone or something; a negative judgement formed beforehand without knowledge of the facts -discrimination: unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice -intergenerational equity: the call for balanced support of old and young people through public policy and public expenditures -look beyond public exchanges of funds to include parent-child exchanges of informal supports, mutual exchanges of money/services between adult children and aging parents, support levels and types of support given and received by many age groups Chapter 2 -levels of analysis -macro level theories: big/large social patterns and trends; history, gender, income effects; functionalist, conflict -micro level theories: individual; interpretive; relationships, self image -theoretical perspectives 1. functionalist a. positivist - observable facts and their relationship b. views society as a system of interrelated parts working together for good of whole c. assumes that society works best through cooperation and consensus, shared norms and values d. society changes or evolves in a positive direction *Age Stratification Theory: sociological approach -looks at the movement of cohorts across the life course and examines their similarities and differences -human lives were shaped by social institutions on their developmental journey 2. conflict a. assumes that society consists of struggles between dominant and subordinate social groups and that this conflict generates social change *Political Economy Theory: race, class, gender, policies *Cumulative Disadvantage Theory: lifelong effects of inequality *Feminist Theory 3. interpretive a. assumes that we create knowledge about our social lives through subjective experience (people can give meaning to anything) b. looks at how people define situations, create their social reality and relate to one another in everyday life -age cohort: a group of people born in the same period of time, ex. 1950-1955 -age grade: a concept used in age stratification theory to describe a period of life defined by society, ie. childhood, adolescence, young adulthood • life course theory: o bridges micro and macro levels o continuity and change in individuals lives over time o age related and socially recognized life transitions o interaction of social life, history, culture, personal biography o transitions: graduation, getting married o trajectories: preschool, elementary, high school, uni, career o life stage principle: timing and sequencing is important to life transitions -research designs: 1. cross-sectional a. studies many age groups at one point in time 2. longitudinal . studies a single group of people at two or more points in time; same group at ten year intervals 3. time lag comparison . studies different groups of people at the same time at different points in time (ie. 70 year olds in 1960s, 70s, 80s) 4. sequential . loos at a series of cross-sectional studies during a longitudinal study Chapter 3 • The United Nations Definition: whenever the population is greater than 7% over 65 it is an aging population. o 65 is “old age” in Canada, 84 in Japan (highest number) o 50 is “old” as a homeless person: harsh conditions, life expectancy -aging in the developed nations (Canada, Sweden, Japan) • pensions • support • aging population place heavier demands on government, community, and family support systems • rethink health care services to best benefit seniors • work longer and raise taxes to cover increased costs and national debt -aging in the least developed nations (Haiti, Ethiopia, Bangladesh) • no infrastructure (high economic vulnerability) • rapid urbanization leaves the old to fend for themselves • poor human development indicators - AIDS wipes out middle age workers, therefore less caregivers • low incomes -aging in the less developed nations (China, India, Vietnam) • developing economies - more than one quarter below the poverty line • China’s one child policy left for a disproportionate number of elderly to young people • at current rates of population change, China will get old before it gets rich • culture is that the old have to support their families however sometimes not feasible • an increase in 80+ population will put a burden on the young • hard to meet the needs of its growing population -growth in the very old and oldest populations in Canada were affected by increased longevity and decreased birth rate -percentage of pop. in Canada over the age of 65 - 15% -percentage of pop. in Canada over 80 - 4% -by 2050 over 80 - 10% -by 2100 over 80 - 15% -the median age in canada is 40.4 years old -men - 39 years old -women - 41 years old -life expectancy is 83 for women and 79 for men -after 65, you have about 15 years of disability free life expectancy -atlantic provinces have the highest aging population, while lowest in Alberta *increased life expectancy in current years -Demographers study three conditions that affect a population’s size and structure: 1. Immigration (3) o accounts for 6 percent of Canada’s population growth from 1946 to 1978 o more people leave Canada in their own age, returning to home countries o younger immigrants bring down median age 2. Death Rate (2) o number of deaths per 1000 people in a population o as health improves, so does life expect
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