Health and Age 1BB3 Study Notes.docx

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Department
Health, Aging and Society
Course Code
HLTHAGE 1BB3
Professor
Anju Joshi

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Health and Age 1BB3 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Myths: Widely held but false notions  Many people die soon after retirement  Golden years  Older people are wealthy  Aging is a burden on the old and on society o Look at the negatives rather than the positives  Most older people live in institutions o 7% live in institutions like old age homes/retirement homes  All older people are alike o More different as they age because of more experience Ageism  Prejudice or discrimination against people based on age- most often involves older people  Term coined by Robert Butler  Beliefs, attitudes and acts that denigrate individuals Stereotype  A one sided exaggerated and usually prejudice view of a group or class of people-negative and positive stereotypes o Older people tend to lose their memory  ―senior moment‖  implies that all old people lose their memories Why do myths/stereotypes continue to exist and endure  media  advertising  political rhetoric  witness evidence of truth/reality IMPACT OF THESES NEGATIVE STEROETYPES  Some may try and distance themselves from label of ―old‖  Some may accept and internalizes the social label of ―old‖, and change their sense of identity to fit label  Change in self-identity can have impact on subjective well-being, self-esteem and coping in later life Ageism marginalizes older people  Devalues older people‘s contributions
  Oppressive
  Limits opportunities and access to resources  Limits social involvement.
  Leads to unfair treatment. Theories of Aging Naila Mahmood Why is theory important?  Set of proposition  Tools of the trade  Guide research an interpret results  Provide framework for explaining findings  Help us to understand and predict Levels of theory  Micro-individual social interaction  Macro- social structures and processes o Theoretical perspectives  Interpretive –tends to be micro level theories  Focus is on individuals and how they create meaning through social interaction  Idea of interpretation  Example of theories that take the interpretive perspective o Social change  Strengths  People play a vital role in creating social world  Social construction of reality  Meanings of age and of aging experience  Limitations  Only one point of view  Little focus on social structures, social processes  Little focus on power or conflict  Functionalist (normative) – macro level theories (or bridges micro and macro)  Focus is on structures of society and how parts function to keep society in balance  Example of theories that take functionalist perspective  Disengagement o Aging involves an inevitable withdrawal from social roles and relationships o Is seen to benefit both the individual and the society o Weaknesses of the theory  Supports the stereotypes of old age as a time of weakness and decline  Assumes that older adults perform less well  Assumes that all older people respond to the world in the same way  No evidence that withdrawal is necessarily good for the society or the older adult  Activity o Maintains that those who are most active in the old age are the happiest o Substitutes should be found for those roles and activities that are lost o Weakness  Fails to ask whether or not inactivity among the ages was voluntary or involuntarily thrust upon them  Failed to consider what level of activity was most desirable or quality of active  Continuity o Emphasized the continuity of roles personality and relationships from their middle years to later life o People will choose that lifestyle in old age that is most like the pattern of life they lived in middle age o Influenced by income o Weakness  Very difficult to test theory empirically  Fails to consider what happens to those whose life situations do not permit the continuation of desired roles/activities  Assumes older adults in later life have the opportunities to maintain stability in their roles/activities  Structural functionalist o Society is viewed as a system of social institutions o Assumes that all components of the social structure are necessary interrelated and have some useful function in maintaining consensus and conformity within the social system  Age stratification o Aging is studies relative to other age strata-not in isolation o Focuses on how the structure of society affects the aging person and on the differences between age strata o Age serves as a criterion for entry or exit from powerful social structures – similar to class divisions  Modernization o Status of older people declines with increasing modernization  Introduction of modern health techniques  Modern economic technology  Urbanization  Rising levels of education o Conflict –tend to be macro level o Theories  Social exchange o At the individual and society level, social interaction is viewed as a process in which we seek to maximize the rewards and reduce costs o Examine factors that influences quality of exchange relationships o When older one could become dependent on others; creating a power imbalance  Life course perspective o Bridges both macro and micro levels o Explains changes that take place over time: o – Lifetime (age); Historical time; Social time – individual pathways  CONFLICT o Focus is on power and control o Social order based on conflict, with struggle leading to change in society  Examples of Theories from Conflict Perspective:  Political Economy  Feminist Theories  Moral Economy  Political Economy Theory o Looks at impact of society on individual o Places study of aging in context of larger political, historical, economic and social forces o Attributes problems of aging to social, political and economic factors and inadequate public policies  Political Economy Theory o Views individuals as passive product of political and economic forces o Argues that policy solutions serve to preserve class differences/class inequities  FEMINIST THEORIES o Bridge Micro and Macro Levels of Analysis o Recognize social structure, social interaction and individual characteristics (gender, race, ethnicity and social) o Gender defines Social Interaction and Life Experiences o Feminist Theories have addressed issues such as : widowhood, home care, care- giving, wife assault, elder abuse, retirement, poverty,― Feminization of Aging‖ o MORAL ECONOMY THEORY  Looks at the Shared Moral Assumptions held by members of society  How values like justice and fairness affect social policies  Social Consensus 
 - generational issues, pensions, health care, taxes Research Design 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Cohorts  cohort includes all individuals born within 
 the same period of time (age or birth) or who enter a system at the same time o e.g. Baby Boom cohort between 1946 and 1966 Age Differences  Result from comparisons of people who are different ages at the same moment in time  Age Changes/Effect
 occur in the same individual over time Period Effects  Differences resulting from measures having been taken at different time periods – effects on all  Historical or Major Events (WW or Dep)  To find out what happened Age Effect: The effect of a time period on an individual depends on how old the person is when he or she experiences that period. The age at what things happened(its important) Age and Period effects interact! Types of Research Design Cohort effect  Cohort experiences differ  Computers: o Cohort effect – older people did not grow up with computers
 o Period Effect – recession and income , time when computers were getting popular o Age effect – ability to handle mouse, can manipulate and problem solve the same way Types of Studies and Methods  Qualitative – usually data; Large data sets  Quantitative o Examples: Surveys, Interviews, focus groups, participant observations, analysis of data sets, lab tests/performance tests o More detailed information  Both of them are needed to understand aging Cross-sectional Design  Looks at different groups of individuals at one point in time (data based on observations or responses)
 at any given time o End up searching age differences  Measures age differences but does not provide reason for the differences PROS  Quick to do  Relatively low cost  Draws attention to 
 patterns of behaviours that vary by age group CONS  Does not tell us anything about changes due to aging Longitudinal Research Design  Looks at a single group of people at two or more points in time ( over time) PROS  A truer picture of change over time CONS  Can take years to complete research  Problem of losing members of sample ( drop out, moving away, death,)
  Can lead to a biased sample  Affected by environmental/period changes.(really important) o Political issues, economic issues Time-Lag Study  Examines different groups of people of the same age at different points in time -
 (e.g. 70 year olds in 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990)  Bring order in period of ages and times o Wisdom stereotypes o More insight when there is age change o More internally driven o Spirituality, do they become for spiritual? PROS  measures differences between cohorts  different times CONS  time-consuming
 expensive to set up and maintain
 attrition can bias the results confounds cohort effects with environmental effects Sequential Designs/Cohort Analysis  Periodic cross-sectional studies during a longer, longitudinal study (combining cross- sectional and longitudinal methods
  Used to examine age differences and age changes at the same time) PROS  Can compare impact of period effects on each cohort  Accounts for maturational change, cohort differences, and environment (period and cultural effects) - thereby reducing the confusion of age change with age differences CONS  Time-consuming
  Expensive to maintain  Attrition can bias the results  Difficult to obtain a representative sample that is randomly selected Demographics of aging in Canada 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Demography:  Is the study of population and those variables bringing about change in the population Demographic of population aging  Is the process whereby a population is made up increasingly of older age groups – especially those 65 years old and above The united nations definition  A population is considered :aged‖ when more than 7% of the population over 65 years of age  Canada‘s aging population (65+)-stats Canada 2006 census  according to the 2006 census, the number of Canadians aged 65 and over increased by 11.5% in the previous life expectance and life span are not the same thing life expectance number of year of life remaining life span the number of years human can live to be 2006 CENSUS - CANADA  According to the 2006 Census, the number of Canadians aged 65 and over increased by 11.5% in the previous five years, and the number of children under age 15 declined by 2.5% over the same period. Statistics Canada, 2007 2006 CENSUS - CANADA  The 65-and-over population made up a record 13.7% of the total population of Canada in 2006.  More old- old in Canadian Society People aged 80 years and over: their number topped the 1 million mark for the first time in 2006 (1.2 million). Statistics Canada, 2007 LIFE EXPECTANCY  The average number of years of life remaining at a given age ( e.g. at birth, at age 65.) or the average number of years a person is projected to live at a given age  Varies by culture, geographic region, gender, ethnicity, education, personal habits etc.  Dependency-Free Life Expectancy: # of people in a given population can expect to live in reasonably good health (disability free) Novak & Campbell, 2006 LIFE SPAN  The theoretical maximum number of years an individual can live  Life Span is the fixed, finite maximum limit of survival of a species (120 for humans?)  LE has increased and will continue to increase ‖Between 1990 and 1996/97, Ontarians‘ life 
 expectancy at birth continued to increase, reaching 
 78.8 years in 1996/97.‖ However, health status varies 
 considerably among populations. (Manuel, D.G., Schultz, S.E., (2001). Adding years to life and life to years: Life and health expectancy in Ontario. Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Ontario: Toronto.  According to the 2006 Census, nearly two out of three persons aged 80 years and over were women.  Women have a higher life expectancy than men (82.5 years compared with 77.7 years, in 2004 in Canada). SEX RATIO M:F 74 M for 100 W 1998 (65+) 2041 78 M for 100 W 1991 (85+) 44 M for 100 W 2011 39 M for 100 W 2031 42 M for 100 W MEASURING POPULATION AGING  1.) PERCENTAGE (%) OF POPULATION o % Age 25
 50
 25 o 65+
 15 - 64 0 – 14 % age 25 65+ 50 15-64 25 0-14  1.) PERCENTAGE (%) OF POPULATION o EXAMPLE:  65+ 15-64 0 -14 o AB 15 15 60 70 25 15 2. POPULATION PYRAMID  Two bar graphs laid back to back  Goal is to provide a conceptual image of how a 
 population‘s age- sex structure looks o Males and females are on opposite sides. o Each bar represents the number of people of each 
 age and sex in the population  References in textbook: p. 66, Exhibit 4.5 – How to Read a Population Pyramid 3. MEDIAN AGE  An age at the midpoint of a population – 1⁄2 of the population is older than the median, 1⁄2 of the population is younger.  The median age in Canada was 30 in 1983. In 2006 the median age was 39.5 (Statistics Canada, 2006 Census), and it is expected to reach 48 in 2031. o Median age of 30+ is Old o Median age of 20- is Young 4. DEPENDENCY RATIOS  Used to calculate the number of dependents for every 100 people in the working population. Old Age Dependency Ratio = Ratio of those over 65 to those of labour force age  Workers = 19-64, Non-Workers = 65+
  Total Dependency Ratio = ratio of all non- workers (including children <19) to workers o (non-workers 0-19) + (non-workers 65+) workers aged 20-64 STATISTICS CANADA, HEALTH INDICATORS 2007 Province/Territory Dependency Ratio Canada 59.6 Newfoundland and Labrador 55.1 PEI 64.1 Nova Scotia 59.2 New Brunswick 57.8 Quebec 57.3 Ontario 60.4 Manitoba 67.6 Saskatchewan 72.9 Alberta 58.3 BC 58.0 Yukon 49.1 NWT 59.2 CAUSES OF DEMOGRAPHIC AGING  Population size and structure are affected by the following three demographic forces: o 1.) DECREASED MORTALITY  People are living longer o 2.) DECREASING FERTILITY  people are having less children o 3.) IMMIGRATION MORTALITY  Decreased mortality = decline in death rates.  Significant influence on population aging  More people living longer & living into late old age  Decline in Infant mortality dramatic – WHY? o Control of childhood disease o Better prenatal care o Improved nutrition/sanitation DECREASED FERTILITY  = decline in birth rates  Most important factor for population aging  Population ages when proportion of young people declines o Source: Statistics Canada, 2002 DECREASED FERTILITY Baby Boom Cohort 1946-1964  Birth rate rose – Why?  Decrease in age at 
 marriage  Economic upswing (Post WWII)  Shorter intervals between births Baby Bust Cohort 1965-1979  Birth rate dropped–Why?  Increasing age at marriage  Delaying childbirth  Economic difficulties  Better birth control(the pill)  Abortion(minor)  Changing role of women IMMIGRATION  Smallest role in population aging  Pattern has changed over time  Alters the ethnic make up of Canadian Society and older Canadians o According to the 2006 Census, immigration has had a significant effect on the growth and diversity of Canada's population, but a minor impact on aging Apocalyptic (voodoo) Demography  Oversimplified notion that a demographic trend – such as population aging has catastrophic consequences for society o Aging as a social problem o Homogenization of older people
  Treating them all the same way o Age-blaming o Intergenerational injustice o Connecting population aging and social policy (Chappell, McDonald and Stones, 2007) Personal Health and Illness 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Guest Lecture, Jan 24, 2012 Dr. Yvonne LeBlanc Learning Objectives  To Consider
  Causes of Death in Later Life  Health/Illness/disease in Later Life  Quality of Life o Compression o The Model of Successful Aging Causes of Death in Later Life Health in Later Life  ― Although seniors are often impacted by multiple physical health issues, such as chronic conditions and reduced mobility and functioning, many feel healthy and are willing to take action to improve their health.‖  The Chief Public Health Of1icer's Report on The State of Public Health in Canada 2010 Health in Later Life  Health status influences both quantity and quality of life.  The prevalence of serious, chronic health conditions increases with age  Between 60 and 80 per cent of adults 65+ report having at least one chronic illness, an activity limitation or a mobility limitation. (Stats Canada, 2007) 
 Senior‘s Mental Health  96.5 2009 satisfied with life  Excellent or very good self-rated mental health*1  Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (estimated) o 70.4 2009 o 8.9 2008 o Source: The Health and Well-being of Canadian Seniors The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on The State of Public Health in Canada 2010 Physical Health and Disease  Excellent or very good self-rated health  Excellent or very good functional health  High blood pressure  Heart disease  Arthritis  Diabetes  Often has difficulties with activities* o 43.6 2009 o 62.0 2005 o 56.1 2009 o 22.6 2009 o 43.7 2009 o 21.3 2006-2007 o 25.3 2008  The Health and Well-being of Canadian Seniors The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on The State of Public Health in Canada 2010 Seniors and Chronic Health Conditions  The most frequently reported chronic conditions among seniors were  High blood pressure Arthritis  The least frequently reported chronic condition was emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Source: CIHI 2011. Seniors and the Health Care System: What Is the Impact of Multiple Chronic Conditions? Seniors and Chronic Health Conditions  Percentage diagnosed with high blood pressure, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and older, Canada, 2009 Seniors and Chronic Health Conditions Percentage diagnosed with arthritis, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and older, Canada, 2009 Source: Canadian Community Health Survey, 2009. Gender Differences in Health and Illness ―Women get sick but men die‖
 --- Gee and Kimball Women  Report a greater number of health problems  Live longer–but live alone  More chronic diseases/conditions than older men(e.g. 
 arthritis, cataracts, high blood pressure).  More years of disability Social well-­‐ being
 (percent of the population aged 65+ years) 70.2 2009 strong sense of
 community belonging  Living alone  Volunteering* o 28.1 2006 o 35.7 2007 Source: The Health and Well-being of Canadian Seniors
 The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on The State of Public Health in Canada 2010 Economic well-­‐ being
 (percent of population aged 65+ years)  Persons living in low-income (after-tax)  5.8 2008 Source: The Health and Well-being of Canadian Seniors
 The Chief Public Health Officer's Report on The State of Public Health in Canada 2010 Super centenarian  Besse Cooper: born in the US August 26, 1896. She is 115 years old. o "I MIND MY OWN BUSINESS," "AND I DON'T EAT JUNK FOOD."  A Super centenarian
 people who are 110 yrs or older  Measures: o Disability Free Life Expectancy
 Refers to the years of remaining life free of any disability
 o Dependence-­‐ free Life Expectancy  Measures number of years of remaining life that a person will live without depending on others for daily tasks Note: Total for Canada excludes Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, and Yukon. Functional Capacity  Functional capacity is an indicator of one‘s ability to carry out everyday tasks o Functional disability refers to the limitation on one‘s ability to perform normal daily activities due to illness or injury  Performing the activities of daily living (ADLs) – e.g. dressing, getting out of bed, grooming, using the toilet.  Performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)– e.g. shopping, banking, cleaning, maintaining a home, and driving a car. Functional Health  Percentage with good to full functional health, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 years and older, Canada, 2009 Source: Canadian Community Health Survey, 2009 Common Functional Capacity Limitations  Inability to: o Perform housework 
 14% of seniors o 10% of seniors o 10% of seniors o 5% of seniors 
 Canadian Community Health Survey—Healthy Aging, 2008–2009, Statistics Canada. 
 20 o More than 1 in 10 seniors older than age 85 could not o Bathe or shower without help o Walk without help  15%  11%  10% o Use the washroom easily
 Canadian Community Health Survey—Healthy Aging, 2008–2009, Statistics Canada. Functional Capacity  Whether disabilities increase dependence or lower one‘s perceived quality of life depends on a variety of factors such as: o tolerance of pain
 personality, and self-­‐ available support,
 type of environment,
 whether one lives alone
 and energy. Potential Consequence of Aging: Frailty  Characterized by muscle weakness, especially in the legs, fatigue, and diminished energy reserves, decreased physical and social activity, loss of weight, and a slow and unsteady gait.  Increased risk of falling, social isolation, dependence, and institutionalization, and nearness to death. Frailty  Falls are the leading cause of injury hospitalizations for seniors across the country  Falls can lead to serious injuries, reduced mobility, nursing home admission and death. Compression of Morbidity Thesis  The idea that severe chronic illness would only occur for a short time near the end of life.  Has been challenged as ―too optimistic‖  Low chance of disease and disability
 High Involvement in social relations and productive activity
 What ‗s Missing? Engaging in active life Minimizing risk & disability Maximizing physical & mental activities Summary Considered
 Health and Illness in Later Life Mortality Chronic Quality of Life Measures Health Behavior Compression of Morbidity Hypoth Model of Successful Aging Physiological Changes Associated With Aging 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Is exercise important Aging: The study of downwardly sloping curves Falling  1/3-1/2 of the population.65yrs will fall at least once a year  fractures account for 80% of fall-related deaths, emergency visits and hospital admission in seniors  -50% of fallers who break their hip do not regain functional walking ability  falls can result in loss of confidence and independence, which can negatively affect quality of life  rates of fall-related fractures are twice as common in older women compared with older men  most common risk factors for falling in older adults (risk ratio) o muscle weakness 4.4 o history of falls 3.0 o gait deficit 2.9 o balance deficit 2.9 o assistive device use 2.6 o visual deficit 2.5 o arthritis 2.4 o impaired ADL 2.3 o depression 2.2 o cognitive deficit 1.8 o age>80 yrs 1.7 Sarcopenia  Refers to the age-associated decline in muscle mass and muscle quality o Sacro=flesh o Penia=deficiency Female gender Hormones Height Sedentary lifestyle Age SARCOPENIA Smoking Weight Disuse Genetics Poor Health SARCOPENIA muscle strength mobility neuromuscular impairment gait and balance disturbances risk of falls and fractures Frailty is a decline in muscle strength an inevitable consequence of sarcopenia?  No! even though muscle fibers are lost with aging, the remaining fibers are still trainable Progressive Resistance Training Muscle Strength resistance Training  has been shown to be effective for increasing muscle strength in older adults functional importance of strength for the elderly  age-associated losses in leg strength and power will increase the risk of falls  most activities of daily living require a certain threshold level of strength for independent performance o e.g.  walking  climbing stairs concept of threshold values why do older adults walk slower?  Longer period of double support enhances balance  Endurance of weakened lower limb muscles maximized with shorter strides  Less flexible ankle and knee joints constrain stride length  More tome to react to changes in environment and to monitor progress Why do older adults have poorer balance?  Age-related changes in nervous system o Slower reflexes and slower response time (inability to correct for unexpected loss of balance)  Age-related changes in cardiovascular system o Postural hypotension (10-20% of community dwelling seniors show a drop in BP of > 20mmHg with a change in posture)  80% of seniors have some form of arthritic complaint o osteoarthritis exercise and osteoarthritis  although excessive exercise has sometimes been implicated as a cause of osteoarthritis, individuals with arthritis can benefit from exercise o how?  Preservation of joint ROM  Increase strength and flexibility  Increased weight loss  Increased mobility  Decreased pain Falls and depression in Older people (TURCU, et al, 2004)  High prevalence of depression among ‗fallers‘  Significant differences in standing posture observed between depressed and non-depressed groups  Walking speed faster in non-depressed group Fear of falling Depression Performance of ADL‘s Bad news  In aging populations, cerebrovascular disease, CHD and atherosclerosis all impair neuropsychological function …can increase risk of falling Good news  Improving cardio-vascular fitness can help to reduce the deleterious effects of age on cognition and brain structure Interrelationship between risk factors NM changes medication postural hypotension Strength & Balance Fall risk Poor vision Inactivity Knee OA Cognitive impairment Psychological Aging 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Psychological Aging  changes that may occur in personality, memory, learning, intelligence and creativity  It also includes coping strategies and adaptation to change (specifically the changes associated with the aging process) Psychology of Aging  Involves the interaction of individual cognitive and behavioural changes with social and environmental factors that affect our psychological state.  Changes in learning ability, memory, and creativity occur across the life course Life-Span Developmental Perspective (Baltes and Goulet, 1970)  Sees the individual as continually changing from birth to death – no end point or goal, change is constant  A dialectical process – interaction of individual with society o Varied patterns of aging  Idea that aging due to all the changes in the society  Physical  No one way to age  Interpretative perspective Dialectical Process  Interpretive Perspective  Aging is multi-dimensional (physical, psychological, social and historical) – change in one dimension impacts others 
  Dealing with change (sometimes crisis) leads to growth and development Dialectical Process  The process of the individual changing in response to societal demands and society changing in response to the individual‘s action and adaptation Three types of environmental effects  Non-Normative Events o Unexpected  For an 80 year old- unexpected death of children  Having a big wedding  Having a child  History Graded Events o historical
  growing up in the depression  Normative Age-graded events o Socially sanctioned- age related  Illnesses  Arthritis  retirement We‘ll examine 5 psychological functions affected by aging: 1. Memory
 2. Learning
 3. Intelligence 4. Personality 5. Creativity Major psychological changes:  A general decline is observed in the speed of psychomotor performance, cognitive functioning, and sensory and perceptual processes. o Particularly noticeable when:  Rapid decision making is required  Abstract reasoning is required
  Task is complex  Anything requiring episodic or working memory recall (specific time and place; processing)  However, decline in cognitive function is not inevitable for everyone! o Normal aging does not significantly alter older people‘s ability to solve problems (experience and knowledge compensate for speed). o Range of intellectual abilities o Harvard – Bruce Yankner (Prof. of Neurology) 
 showed that between the ages of 40 and 70 the DNA of aging brains differed (a wide range) Memory  Episodic memory: acquired at specific time & place, specific knowledge of an experience e.g. recall of words on a list, where you parked your car  Non-episodic memory: general knowledge of the world, familiar information, semantic memory (facts and language-based)  Latency: the length of time a person takes to respond or react (processing time).  Older people need more time to retrieve information from both their long and short-term memory.  THE CONTEXTUAL APPROACH o A multi-factorial view of memory Many conditions influence memory:  physical, psychological, & social contexts of the event  knowledge, abilities, characteristics of the individual  situation in which the individual is asked to remember  Memory o What people BELIEVE and FEEL about their memory may be as important as their actual memory o Can improve memory through practice and intervention L e a r n i n g Learning and memory linked - memory involved in retrieval of information (among other processes).  Older adults can learn new skills, ideas, and concepts if adequate personal and situational conditions are present.  Individual differences between and within cohorts in learning ability  Older adults have the capacity to learn but it often takes them longer to search for information, code, recall and respond. Optimizing learning conditions:  Eliminate distractions
 Set own pace of learning Enable the person to learn Health L e a r n i n g  I n t e l l i g e n c e  FLUID vs CRYSTALLIZED o CRYSTALLIZED --> refers to the use of stored information, learning (education & experience). Usually measured by direct & pragmatic questions e.g. why should we pay our taxes? o FLUID --> refers to reasoning, abstracting, concept formation, problem solving (synthesizing new material). Tests for fluid intelligence require the student to manipulate unfamiliar material in new ways & usually have a time limit. P e r s o n a l i t y Stability or Change across the life course?  Life span development  Continuity theory  Longitudinal studies --> suggest stability is a normal pattern (traditional view).  Personal characteristics such as presentation of self, attitudes, values, temperament and traits. Does personality change with age? Cr e a t i v i t y What does it mean to be creative in later life? Making something: production of art, practicing skills, cognitive process underlying creative activity CREATIVITY AS: both a way of thinking and a way of doing Creativity Thinking about things in a unique way: use of one’s mind, generating new ideas. Focus on self and not final product. Psychological Aging...  Does NOT proceed in the same way for all people  Is greatly affected by environmental, social and personal determinants such as stressful life events (loss of spouse, 
 divorce, loss of leisure activities) - also social support from 
 community and family. o Is influenced by cultural differences and how older people are 
 valued. o The psychological make-up of an individual continues to develop and change across their life-span  A Study in the journal Psychology and Aging showed that playing real time video games (such as Rise of Nations) can help older adults maintain and even improve their ability to reason and their short term memory websites to check out: http://www.pfizer.com/brain/etour.html - amazing illustrated exploration of the brain. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/brain/episode5/index.html - The Aging Brain ,PBS http://www.creativeaging.org/ - National Center for Creative Aging Midterm Feb. 7th, 9:30 am Midterm: HLTH AGE 1BB3 Aging and Society 45 minutes 40MultipleChoiceQuestions Questions from :  All assigned readings–even those that were self study (not discussed in class). Pages are noted for various topics in the course outline.  Class content and notes posted on Avenue. Midterm is based on class content up to Oct. 17th.  Guest Speaker’s notes (Audrey Hicks) and DVD on Personhood (available by streaming at Mills.. See Avenue for details). Examples of Types of Questions  Which one of the following statements is /true/false or not true  Research has shown that  According to Novak and Campbell  Definitions, Concepts, perspectives and theories, major findings on topics addressed to date in class, text and posted notes Aging Today 2/4/2012 11:08:00 AM Key terms  Ageism o prejudice against older people  compassionate stereotype o a stereotype that attempts to create sympathy for older people, but does not give a true picture of later life  discrimination o unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice.  Elderspeak o a simplified speech like baby talk that some people use when they speak to older people. It steams from stereotyping older people as slow-witted  Gerontology o the discipline that studies aging systematically  Intergenerational equity o the call for a smaller proportion of public support for older people; based on the beliefs that older people use a disproportionate share of public resources  New ageism o the belief that older people need
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