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Anatomy and Physiology – Midterm Review.docx

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Health Sciences
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Peter Helli

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Anatomy and PhysiologyMidterm Review Anatomical terminology Definition of Anatomy vs Physiology Anatomyis the science of body structures and the relationships among them Physiologyis the science of body functions how the body parts workTissue Types 41 EPITHELIUM Functions jobs 1 It protects us from the outside worldskin2 Absorbsstomach and intestinal lining gut 3 Filtersthe kidney4 Secretesforms glands Characteristics Traits 1 Closely attached to each other forming a protective barrier 2 Always has one free apical surface open to outside the body or inside cavity an internal organ3 Always had one fixed basal section attached to underlying connective tissue 4 Has no blood vessels but can soak up nutrients from blood vessels in connective tissue underneath5 Can have lots of nerves in it innervated 6 Very good at regenerating fixing itself ie sunburn skinned kneeClassifications types 1 By shape a squamousflat and scalelike b cuboidalas tall as they are widec columnartall columnshaped 2 By cell arrangement a simple epitheliumsingle layer of cells usually for absorption and filtration b stratified epitheliumstacked up call layers protection from abrasion rubbingmouth skin2 CONNECTIVE TISSUE Functions jobs 1 Wraps around and cushions and protects organs 2 Stores nutrients 3 Internal support for organs 4 As tendon and ligaments protects joints and attached muscles to bone and each other5 Runs through organ capsules and in deep layers of skin giving strengthThe 3 Elements of Connective Tissue 1 Ground substancegel around cells and fibers2 Fibersprovide strength elasticity and support3 Cells2 Kinds of Connective Tissue1 Loose Connective Tissue a Areolar Connective Tissuecushion around organs loose arrangement of cells and fibers b Adipose Tissuestorehouse for nutrients packed with cells and blood vessels c Reticular Connective Tissueinternal supporting framework of some organs delicate network of fibers and cells 2 Dense Connective Tissue a Dense Regular Connective Tissuetendons and ligaments regularly arranged bundles packed with fibers running same way for strength in one direction b Dense Irregular Connective Tissueskin organ capsules irregularly arranged bundles packed with fibers for strength in all directions2a SPECIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUES 1 CartilageFunctions jobs a provides strength with flexibility while resisting wear ie epiglottis external ear larynxb cushions and shock absorbs where bones meet ie intervertebral discs joint capsules 2 BoneFunctions jobs a provides framework and strength for bodyb allows movement c stores calcium d contains bloodforming cells 3 BloodFunctions jobs a transports oxygen carbon dioxide and nutrients around the bodyb immune response3 NERVOUS TISSUE Functions jobs 1 Conducts impulses to and from body organs via neuronsThe 3 Elements of Nervous Tissue 1 Brain 2 Spinal cord3 Nerves4 MUSCLE TISSUE Functions jobs 1 Responsible for body movement 2 Moves blood food waste through bodys organs3 Responsible for mechanical digestion The 3 Types of Muscle Tissue 1 Smooth Muscleorgan walls and blood vessel walls involuntary spindleshaped cells for pushing things through organs 2 Skeletal Musclelarge body muscles voluntary striated muscle packed in bundles and attached to bones for movement 3 Cardiac Muscleheart wall involuntary striated muscle with intercalated discs connecting cells for synchronized contractions during heart beatOrigin of Anatomical Terms Discoverer Region Shape Function StoryAnatomical Position Sectioning planes Directions MovementsAnatomical PositionStandard position of referenceanatomical position directly facing observer with head level feet flat on the floor upper limbs are at the sides with palms facing toward forwardIf the body is facing downprone position If the body is lying face upsupine position Sectioning Planes Sagital Planevertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sidesMidsagittal or Median Planewhen such a plane passes through the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides Parasagittal Planeif the sagittal plane does not pass through the midline but instead divides the body or an organ into unequal right and left sidesFrontal or Coronal Planedivides the body or an organ into anterior front and posterior back portions Transverseor Crosssectional or Horizontal Planedivides the body or an organ inter superior upper and inferior lower portions Oblique Planepasses through the body or an organ at an oblique angle any angle other than a 90 degree angleDirections Directional Term Definition Example of UseSuperior Toward the head or the The heart is superior to upper part of a structurethe liver Inferior Away from the head or the Stomach is inferior to the lower part of a structurelungs Anterior Nearer to or at the front of The sternum is anterior to the body the heart Posterior Nearer to or at the back of The esophagus is the body posterior to the trachea
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