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nursing anatomy and physiology notes--gastrointestinal system 2

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McMaster University
Health Sciences

GI part 2 Basic Plan PeritoneumStomachReview of deglutionTongue pushes masticated food towards oropharynx Uvula closes of nasopharynxLarynx elevates and epiglottis closes of tracheaPharyngeal muscles push bolus food passed UES upper esophagi areaSkeletal muscle in first 13 of esophagus pushes bolus toward involuntary section smooth muscle controlled by ANS and ENSLES opens and bolus enters the stomach AKA the grinderGERD importance of Diaphragm as a Sphincter Simply the acid in the stomach goes back into the esophagus from the stomach can cause arousing of the esophagus Although esophagus has some mucous they do not protect themselves from the acid in the stomach because normally they are not supposed to come up there In addition the sphincter is heavily relying on diaphragm to get a help of keeping esophagus closeHiatal hernia when some of the portion of stomach comes up into the diaphragmreflexLES pressure often lowGastric pouchintrathoracic reservoirDiaphragmno esophageal pinchGastroesophageal reflux disease GERDheartburn is often confused with cardiac disease causes are numerous but is worsened by smoking alcohol relax the lower esophageal so that the acid can come up easily coffee chocolate peppermint stress increase HCl in stomach you have more acidObesity and pregnancy cause more pressure in the stomach so that the acid to go upTx treatment options includesmaller mealsmaintaining an upright position after a mealavoid problematic foods spicyantacids sodium or calcium neutralize the acidThe Basic PlanoLayers and their functionoMucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa
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