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HTHSCI 2H03 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Metabolism, Blood Plasma, Protein

22 Pages
Fall 2018

Health Sciences
Course Code
Kirsten Culver
Study Guide

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Fall 2018
Week 1: Lecture 1: Pharmacokinetics- drug administration and absorption
Readings: chapter 3 and 8
4 main processes:
o absorption
o distribution
o metabolism
o elimination
o skin
o inhalers- asthma, copd,
o eye/ear drops
o oral- most convenient gut for site of absorption very slow
most complex
once dissolved cross through stomach get to bloodstream
drug absorption not immediately to systemic circulation first liver and
then after passes enters systemic circulation onto target tissues
some drug lost before works
o rectal- gut for absorption
parenteral- not involving GI
o Intravenous- right into bloodstream- super highway
Aren’t asored – not crossing biological membranes to get into
systemic- putting it directly into bloodstream
Most rapid and complete form
Dependent on being in healthcare system
Want to slowly adjust these values to get it to get meaningful healthy
o Subcutaneous- under skin- absorbed to blood
o Intramuscular- vaccines-
o Transdermal- lipid soluble (oral contraceptives)
o Intrathecal- spinal /pain
o Sublingual- nitroglycerine (angina)
Drug absorption movement of drug from site of administration across body
membranes and into circulatory system
Factors affecting drug absorption
o Route of administration
o Drug properties/formulation
Liquid- faster than tablet
o Drug dosage
Simple diffusion- high to low
Very few drugs need energy to move across and require transporter
find more resources at
find more resources at
Manipulate how quickly absorbed load dose start with high and then
taper down
o Blood flow at administration site
o Digestive motility
diarrhea- drugs move more quicker less opportunity drug to be exposed
to site of absorption , concentration gradient weaken
that’s wh use retal if N/V net est
o Digestive tract enzymes
Affinity ind to efflu transporter ak into intestine so doesn’t get
absorbed and then eliminated
o Intestinal P-glycoproteins (P-GP)
Drugs that bind to it are problematic have to give more meds orally and
know some r gna be lost
Overdose state since more side effects with these since overestimate
their body ability to pull drug out through efflux transporter
Absorption: complicated
o Oral drugs are most commonly available in tablet/capsule
o Drugs must first dissolve separate from excipient(added bulk) in stomach and or
intestinal fluid and largely composed of water
o To enter circulation absorption , drugs must pass through liquid rich plasma
o What if cant dissolve excipient
o Drug has to be fat soluble to cross membrane and water soluble to go into
o Has to be water and fat soluble
Dissolving drugs in biological fluids
o Drugs need to be dissolved such they can be free
o Like dissolves like
o Orally administered drugs must first be dissolved before they can be absorbed
into bloodstream
o Biological fluids dissolve drugs that share same characteristics
o Biological fluid consists of mostly water, polar
o Takes time especially if drug is high non polar- slowing onset of action
o Don’t take aspirin with food or else dissolve too quickly
Drug very water soluble- then easily administered by IV but not fat soluble drugs or else
clogs circ. System
o iV administration skips process of absorption
o fast onset of action expected
drug very poorly water soluble non polar fat soluble- drug an’t be administered but IV
o all other routes require absorption
o oral administration most common form of drug administration
o slower onset of action should be expected
most drugs are bound to excipients (particles ) an’t be absorbed until free of
excipient which must be dissolved
find more resources at
find more resources at

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