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[HTHSCI 3BB3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 118 pages long Study Guide!Premium

118 pages247 viewsFall 2016

Department
Health Sciences
Course Code
HTHSCI 3BB3
Professor
Teresa Mccurdy
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
HTHSCI 3BB3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION NOTES
The Scientific Method
The scientific method starts with asking a question that is usually based on some observation.
Then you do some background research and construct a hypothesis.
We want to then test the hypothesis by doing some sort of an experiment.
After this, the data needs to be analyzed and a conclusion is drawn.
Lastly, the results are reported and you find out if the hypothesis was correct or not.
Theory comes about when this is done a few times. We have the weight of the evidence saying this is
the way it works.
What Makes a Good Experiment?
Quantifiable Data – can you measure the information in a scientific manner
Appropriate experimental population
Appropriate number of subjects – Is the population large enough and pertinent to the study
Suitable study duration. It gets a bit tricky with nutrition for suitable study duration because it takes
many years to see the effects of things like eating pattern so we see a lot of observational studies for
this.
Statistical analysis of results
Proper controls – Can we ensure that the population ate or drank what we said they did?
Publication of results after peer review
Elements of Nutritional Experiments
Experimental Group: variable being tested is PRESENT
Control Group: variable being tested is ABSENT
Placebo is going to help. We would like to blind the participants and researchers if possible and if we
can blind the people that are analyzing the results then that is even better.
Types of Nutritional Research Studies
Observational studies can include epidemiology which looks at diet, health and disease patterns in a
population. In nutrition, observational studies are popular because it takes a long time to see an effect.
Correlations can be observed, although cause and effect cannot be determined.
Identifying Reliable Nutritional Information
Is the information based on well-designed, accurately-interpreted research studies?
Does the information make sense?
Who will benefit when you purchase the product?
Has this product stood the test of time? If it is something that has been around for a while and has
been acknowledged to work then that is great but if it is something new and everyone is trying but is
not proven to work then does it make sense.
If you look at the nutrition literature, who has funded the study because there may be some bias.
Example: Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplements for Joints
Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulphate are the building blocks of cartilage produced in the body
Supplements claim to help rebuild cartilage and reduce pain in OA
The GAIT study found no significant difference between placebo and G & CS
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New 2013 study finds glucosamine not effective for pain in osteoarthritis
You also need to think about if it is going to cause any harm and if they can afford it.
If they swear it works for them and they have the money for it then great. But if they can’t afford it
then we would tell them that the research doesn’t really show much evidence for it working.
Critical Appraisal
Look at the size of the study and if it is randomized, double-blind, etc.
Evaluate quality of study and look for other studies that validate results.
If there are no human studies evaluating effect, think twice before buying the product.
Nutrition and Biochemistry
We will study the underlying biochemical reactions where applicable.
For example, looking at antioxidants and what they are and why we need them.
Oxygen is necessary for life but reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause damage.
A lot of time the reactive oxygen species are causing problems so a higher content of antioxidants
should reduce the ROS that are there.
ROS can attach to DNA and RNA and the extract hydrogen and it is a chain reaction kind of thing.
They can mess with lipid membranes and proteins.
We naturally make some ROS but smoking, alcohol, some fast food, and some chemicals can introduce
more exogenous ROS.
Some Good News
According to a study 5 years ago in Germany, 19,000 participants demonstrated a connection between
lower rates of cardiovascular diseases and blood pressure with chocolate intake.
However, the authors mentioned that more research is required such as randomized trials.
In 2012, a meta-analysis* of RCTs found a significant blood-pressure lowering effect of cocoa
(chocolate), although the 20 studies included showed some differences with length of treatment
indicating the need for further study
There are flavanols in dark chocolate which can reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, etc.
Plant sources don’t have cholesterol, animals do.
Endothelial functioning cells is a big one so inside vessels, better functioning endothelial cells.
Some of the other flavanol rich foods include red wine, apples, and tea.
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