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KIN 1AA3 Anatomy full exam review notes .docx

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Krista Howarth

Blood972012 124600 PM If allow blood to clot first when it is separated into liquid and denser portions the liquid part is called serum instead of plasma and it no longer has the things it needs for clotting ie fibrinogenMajority of bodily fluid is interstitialPlasmaLiquid part of blood o Colloid liquid containing suspended substances that dont settle out of solution o 91 water remainder proteins ions nutrients waste products gases and regulatory substancesProteinso Albumins determine viscosity resistance to flow osmotic pressure movement of water through semipermeable membranes buffer pH transports fatty acids free bilirubin breakdown product of RBC associated with pigment thyroid hormones o Globulins transports lipids CHO hormones ions antibodies and complement associated with blood typing o Fibrinogen blood clotting absent or reduced in serumSolutes Ions involved in osmosis membrane potentials and acidbase balanceNutrients glucose amino acids triacylglycerol cholesterol vitamins Waste products o Urea uric acid creatinine breakdown product of PRO muscle tissue used to detect heart attacks associated with damage to heart muscle ammonia salts breakdown products of protein metabolismo Bilirubin breakdown products of RBCs o Lactic acid end product of anaerobic respirationGases oxygen bound to molecule inside RBC smalldissolves separately in liquid portion not effective in changing bodily processes carbon dioxide and inert nitrogenRegulatory substances hormones enzymes Production of Formed Elements Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis process of blood cell production Stem cells all formed elements derived from single population Initial differentiation determines the productProerythroblasts develop into RBCMyeloblasts develop into basophils neutrophils eosinophilsLymphoblasts develop into lymphocytesMonoblasts develop into monocytesMegakaryoblasts develop into plateletso Platelets are considered cell fragments actual cell is called megakaryocyte Red Blood Cells Contain no nuclei no machinery for repair that why they need to get replaced so often Loose nucleus between late erythroblast and reticulocyte Oxygen from lungs to tissues 985 attached to hemoglobinCarbon dioxide from tissues to lungs 23 in combination with hemoglobin Componentso 13 hemoglobin o 23 lipids ATP carbonic anhydrase biconcave disks rounds with 2 concave holes on either end o disease where this isnt the case sickle cell anemiaWhite Blood Cells Monocytes and lymphocytes agranulocytesBasophils eosinophils neutrophils granulocytesHemoglobinTypes of hemoglobin embryonic or fetal has greater attraction for O2 than an adult fetal production stops after birth and becomes adult hemoglobin Four globin molecules polypeptide chains o Transport CO2o Four heme molecules that each contain one iron atom which has an affinity for O2 for transportation Oxyhemoglobin transport oxygenDeoxyhemoglobin no O2 is bound Carbaminohemoglobin transporting CO2ErythropoiesisRBCs last 120 days in circulation enucleated Production of RBC o Stem cellsproerythroblastsearly erythroblastsintermediate erythroblastslate erythroblastsreticulocytesErythropoietin hormone stimulates RBC production produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levelsWhite Blood CellsProtect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debrisMovementso Ameboid pseudopods o Diapedesis cells become thin elongate and move either between or through endothelial cells of capillaries into interstitial tissue o Chemotaxis attraction to and movement toward foreign materials or damaged cells Accumulation of dead white cells and bacteria is pus Neutrophils after leaving bone marrow stay in circulation for 1012 hours then move into other tissues Become motile phagocytize bacteria antigenantibody complexes and other foreign matter
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