Introduction and Basics of a Healthy Diet .doc

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McMaster University
Danny M.Pincivero

Introduction & Basics - Antioxidant: a nutrient that combines with or neutralizes free radicals, preventing oxidative damage to the cell; eg. Vitamin C, E, selenium, neutralize anion - Free radicals are by-products of normal metabolic pathways (eg. Glycolysis, oxidative phos) - Oxygen picks up an extra electron: O 2-superoxide anion (most common one) o With exercise, O 2ncreases; anion it binds to cell membranes, DNA and disrupts normal metabolic & cellular processes  can result in cell / membrane damage eg. Premature aging; certain nutrients combat development of superoxide anion; muscle cells have enzyme that functions to neutralize anion o Vitamins take electron from O2 leaving it as O2 aka harmless - Phytochemicals “plant chemical” o Complex chemicals that vary from plant to plant o Eg. Orange has over 170 distinctive phytochemcials o Function: fight bacteria and viruses, UV lights, free radicals o Health benefits: cancer prevention (free radical and hormone neutralizing), lowering LDL cholesterol Macronutrients 1) Carbohydrates - Purpose: supplies energy to cells - Storage: liver and skeletal muscle; storage form - glycogen - Example of food sources: simple or complex CHO - Problems/diseases: diabetes mellitus - RBCs lack mitochondria; cells that contain mitochondria engage in aerobic metabolism except RBCs so they can’t use O2 to support needs, they rely on glucose - carbs are an essential nutrient b/c RBCs can only feed on them to provide energy - carbs are stored mainly in the liver (greater density) and skeletal muscles but there’s a limit - more skeletal muscle than liver so more absolute amt stored in skeletal muscle than liver - glycogen – long chains of glucose 2) Lipids - fats, oils, cholesterol, phospholipids Purpose: a) building block of phospholipids (key constituents of cell membranes) and glycolipids (lipid attached to carb, incorporated in cell membranes to provide stability) b) protein modification by attaching to fatty acids (eg. Lipoprotein – transport fats, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins) c) fuel d) derivatives serve as hormones and intracellular messengers Storage: WAT (white adipose tissue) AND BAT (brown adipose tissue) Examples of food sources: meat, dairy products, coconut, olives, avocado Problems specific to lipids: obesity, CHD, CAD 3) Proteins - Purpose: structure and energy - Storage: every tissue - Example of food sources: meat, fish, dairy, grains (quinoa), legumes(soy), veggies - Problems / diseases: Kwashiorkor: lack of dietary protein, fat deposition into liver, swelling Marasmus: muscle wasting and fat depletion Excess: heart disease (increased fat), cancers (colon, kidney breast, prostate), osteoporosis (increased Ca ++ excretion) - Non-protein nitrogenous compounds - composed of amino acids but not considered to be protein - examples: glutathione, carnitine, carnosine, creatine, choline 4) Vitamins - organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and other atoms (N, O, P) - no caloric value Function: energy extraction from macronutrients, calcium balance, blood clotting 2 groups: 1) water soluble (B vitamins, vitamin C) 2) fat soluble: A, D, E, K - water soluble vitamins can be excreted; if taken in excess, body will take what it use and flush the rest through normal filtration process of kidneys; but carry risk of toxicity – not from consumption of food but from supplements - fat soluble vitamins toxicity levels depend on individual vitamin 5) Minerals - an inorganic nutrient that is needed for growth and regulation of normal physiology - >16 minerals - Macrominerals: major minerals required in the diet in larger amounts than the trace minerals  Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, S - Trace minerals: required in small amounts in the diet  Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, I, Fl - Energy: an ability to cause change in, or perform, work, heat and/ or mass - Forms of energy: o Mechanical : moving physical objects o Electrical: moving charges (electrons) (Ca is important for the heart) o Thermal: increasing temperature (randomness) o Chemical: binding/unbinding of bonds o Nuclear: binding/unbinding lf nucleons - calorie: the amount of energy needed to raise t
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