Basics of a Healthy Diet .doc

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Department
Kinesiology
Course
KINESIOL 1F03
Professor
Danny M.Pincivero
Semester
Fall

Description
22 BASICS OF A HEALTHY DIET Adequate Diet • A diet that provides enough of the energy, nutrients, and fibre to maintain a person’s health. Moderation • Refers to eating the “right” amounts of foods to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize the body’s metabolic processes. GOAL: gauge energy intake with energy expenditure on a daily basis Balanced Diet • A diet that contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper balance of nutrients. Variety • Refers to eating many different foods each day. Energy density: amount of energy in a food source relative to its’ mass. Nutrient density: amount of nutrients in a food source relative to its’ energy content. KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 23 Example: 1 cup (250 mL) skim milk vs 1 cup chocolate milk Skim milk Chocolate milk Calories 88 kcal 190 kcal Protein 9 grams 8 grams CHO 13 grams 27 grams Total sugar 13 grams 26 grams Fat Trace 5 grams (3.3 sat. fat) Calcium 324 mg 301 mg Cholesterol 5 mg 18 mg Vitamin D 2.7 mcg 2.6 mcg Vitamin A 158 RAE 145 RAE KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 24 CANADA’S FOOD GUIDE Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide (2007)  A serving size as defined in Canada’s Food Guide may not be equal to a serving size listed on a food label.  Designed to reduce the risk of chronic disease and obesity through healthy eating. Food Guide Servings for nine age/sex groups. Food groups: • Vegetables and Fruit • Grain Products • Milk and Alternatives • Meat and Alternatives KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 25 KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 26 CANADA'S FOOD GUIDE (cont'd) Diet planning guide Servings per day • 3 age categories children, 6 age/gender groupings adults • Example: Adult men & women, 7- 10 servings of vegetables & fruit/day • Estimated energy needs for adults (table 2-2) NUTRITION LABELS KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 27 KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 28 NUTRITION LABELS (cont'd) Daily Values • Amount of nutrients provided in a serving of food (packaged food item) • Uses 2 reference points 1) Recommended Daily Intakes: most vitamins and minerals 2) Reference Standards: Table 2-6 Fat 65 g Saturated fat 20 g Cholesterol 300 mg Carbohydrate (total) 300 g Fibre 25 g Sodium 2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg Vitamin C 60 mg Vitamin A 1000 RE Calcium 1100 mg Iron 14 mg NUTRITION FACTS Nutrition information: KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 29 Energy: Total fat: Saturated + trans fat: Cholesterol: Sodium: Carbohydrate: Fibre: KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 30 FOOD GROUPS 1. Breads and cereals (wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye) 2. Legumes 3. Nuts and seeds 4. Fruit 5. Vegetables 6. Milk and milk products 7. Meat and poultry 8. Fish and seafood 9. Eggs 10. Fats and oils 11. Herbs and spices Breads and cereals (wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye) • Provides starch and dietary fibre (70-77% of the grain) • Protein (6-15% of the grain) • Gluten – major protein in wheat and rye • Oryzenin – major protein in rice • Whole grains – higher thiamin, vitamin E and fibre Grains • Provides CHO, fibre, B-vitamins • Wheat plant: endosperm, germ, bran, husk • Refined: finely ground endosperm, low in nutrients • Enriched: nutrients added back in after processing • Whole-grain: food (i.e., flour) made from the entire grain KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 31 KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 32 Grains - Figure 2-9 Wheat • Covers more the earth’s surface than any other crop • Requires milling (grinding) and sifting….produces flour, bran, germ, semolina (made from durum wheat……used to make pasta) White flour – outer portion of kernel is removed, decreased nutrient content KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 33 Rice • Feeds over half of the worlds’ population • Brown rice – bran layer is retained • White rice – brown rice is milled and polished (low in thiamin) Maize (American corn) • Dry milled (protein and starch not separated)…..produces corn meal, grits, flour • Wet milled (protein and starch separated)……produces starch, dextrose, corn syrup solids, glucose KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 34 OATS • Steamed or kiln-dried, then dehulled • Rolled (to make oat flakes) • Granulated (fine oatmeal) • Advertised to have a cholesterol-lowering effect BARLEY • Milled (same processing as wheat) • Used for baking, brewing, vinegar, soups, flour for flatbread RYE • Milled and baked into bread and breakfast cereals LEGUMES • Edible seeds from the Leguminosae family • Dried peas, beans, soya beans, lentils, peanuts • Most adequately meets RDA standards • High in CHO and fibre • Adequate level of protein (soya beans, lentils…….provide complete PRO) • Vitamins/minerals (thiamin, niacin, zinc, calcium, magnesium) • Low in fat (except soya beans, 8%, and peanuts, 42%)…..mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated. NUTS AND SEEDS KIN 1F03 – Human Nutrition and Health D.M. Pincivero, 2012 35 • Eaten raw or roasted, processed for oil Nuts: almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews Seeds: sunflower, sesame, pumpkin Nutritional profile: per 100 grams • Protein (g): 2.0 (chestnuts) to 24.4 (pumpkin seeds) • Fat (g): 2.7 (chestnuts) to 77.6 (macadamian)… mono and polyunsat. • Carbohydrates: 3.1 (brazil) to 36.6 (chestnuts) • Dietary fibre: 1.9 (pine nuts) to 7.9 (sesame seeds) • Regular consumption decreases risk for coronary artery disease (action of Vitamin E and un
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