Respiratory System

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McMaster University
Danny M.Pincivero

Chapter 23 - The Respiratory System What are the functions of the respiratory system? 1. Ventilation: movement of air into and out of lungs 2. External Respiration: gas exchange between air in lungs and blood 3. Transport of O a2d CO in t2e blood 4. Internal Respiration: gas exchange between the blood and tissues What are the parts of the nose and nasal cavities? Nasal Cavity: extends from nares to choanae • Vestibule: just inside nares • Hard Palate: floor of nasal cavity • Nasal Septum: partition dividing cavity o Anterior cartilage; posterior vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid • Conchae: bony ridges of lateral walls with meatuses between o Opening to paranasal sinuses and to nasolacrimal duct What are the functions of the nasal cavity? 1. Passageway for air 2. Cleans the air (mucous membrane) 3. Humidifies, warms air (nasolacrimal duct) 4. Smell 5. Resonating chambers for speech (along w/ paranasal sinuses) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the pharynx and what is it composed of? - Common opening for digestive and respiratory systems  Three regions 1. Nasopharynx: openings of auditory tubes  Soft palate floor, uvula is posterior extension of this soft palate 2. Oropharynx: shared with digestive system 3. Laryngopharynx: epiglottis to esophagus ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the larynx composed of?  Unpaired cartilages o Thyroid: largest,Adam’s apple o Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx o Epiglottis: attached to thyroid and has a flap near base of tongue  Hyaline cartilage  Paired o Arytenoids: attached to cricoids o Corniculate: attached to arytenoids o Cuniform: contained in mucous membrane  Ligaments extend from arytenoids to thyroid cartilage o Vestibular folds (“false vocal folds”) o Vocal Folds: sound production (opening between is glottis) What are the functions of the larynx? 1. Open passageway for air (thyroid and cricoids cartilages) 2. Epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx 3. Primary source of sound production 4. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium prevents entry of debris --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the trachea composed of? - From the larynx to the mediastinum - Wall composed of three layers 1. Mucosa: ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells 2. Submucosa: connective tissue with seromucous glands 3. Adventitia: outermost layer made of connective tissue that encases that C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage • Trahealis Muscle: connects posterior parts of cartilage rings o Contracts during coughing to expel mucus • Carina: last tracheal cartilage – point where trachea branches into 2 bronchi --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the respiratory membrane composed of? • Type I Pneumocytes: simple squamous cells where gas exchange occurs • Type II Pneumocytes (Septal Cells): free surface has microvilli o Secrete alveolar fluid containing surfactant • Surfactant o Phospholipid structure surrounding alveoli o Reduces surface tension o Allows easier diffusion of O 2 CO 2 and H 2 • Alveolar Dust Cells: wandering macrophages remove debris • Surface Tension (Alveolar) o Condition at the surface between a gas and a liquid causing a cohesive state o Higher tension = stronger attraction between molecules --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is the difference between inspiration and expiration? • Inspiration o Diaphragm, external intercostals, pectoralis minor, scalene o Diaphragm: central tendon  Quiet Inspiration: inferior movement of central tendon and flattening of dome; abdominal muscles relax • Expiration o Muscles that depress the ribs and sternum: abdominal muscles and internal intercostals  Quiet Expiration: relaxation of diaphragm and external intercostals with contraction of abdominal muscles  Laboured Breathing: all inspiratory muscles are active and contract more forcefully (expiration is rapid) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- How is blood supplied to the lungs and lymphatic system?  Two sources of blood to lungs o Pulmonary artery > deoxygenated blood o Pulmonary veins > oxygenated blood o Bronchial arteries > branches of thoracic aorta o Bronchial veins > merges with alveolar capillaries  Two lymphatic supplies o Superficial and deep lymphatic vessels (exits from hilius) o Superficial drain, superficial lung tissue, and visceral pleura o Deep brain bronchi and associated C.T. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is ventilation and how is it calculated? - Ventilation is air movement and is driven by a pressure gradient • Boyle’s Law: P = k/V - How does the diaphragm increase thoracic volume? o Muscular contraction o Displacement increases thoracic volume --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is compliance? - Measure of the ease with which lungs and thorax expand o The greater the compliance, easier for a change in pressure to cause expansion o Lower-than-normal compliance, lungs and thorax are harder to expand • Pulmonary Fibrosis: deposition of inelastic fibers in lung (emphysema) • Pulmonary Edema: increased resistance to airflow caused by airway obstruction How is lung function measured? • Spirometry: measures volumes of air that move into and out of respiratory system • Tidal Volume: amount of air inspired or expired with each breath o At rest: 500 mL • Inspiratory Reserve Volume: amount that can be inspi
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