Reproductive System

8 Pages
142 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Kinesiology
Course
KINESIOL 1YY3
Professor
Danny M.Pincivero
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 28 – The Reproductive System Female Reproductive System What is oogenesis and what is its role in fertilization? • Oogenesis: production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries Oogonia Cells from which oocytes develop  Primary Oocytes th 5 million by the 4 month of prenatal life Surrounded by granulosa cells (primordial follicle)  Primary Follicle  Secondary Follicle  Graafian Follicle “Mature” follicle • Ovulation: release of a secondary oocyte form an ovary o Graafian follicle  corpus luteum • Fertilization: sperm cell binds to plasma membrane of a secondary oocyte o Secondary oocyte completes meiosis II forming one polar body o Fertilized egg now a zygote  Fate of corpus luteum o If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists o If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What are the uterine (fallopian) tubes composed of? • Mesosalpinx: part of broad ligament o opens directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary • Fimbriae: long, thin processes that extend from the infundibulum • Ampulla: widest part, where fertilization occurs - Three layers: outer serosa, middle muscular layer, and inner mucosa o Provides nutrients for oocyte/ embryonic mass o Cilia moves fluid and oocyte through the tube towards uterus --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Identify the parts of the uterus. - Parts: body, isthmus, cervis, and fundus  Ligaments: broad, round, uterosacral • Round: from uterus through inguinal canals to labia majora • Uterosacral: attach lateral wall of uterus to sacrum  Composed of 3 layers • Perimetrium > Serous membrane • Myometrium > Smooth muscle • Endometrium > mucous membrane o Functional Layer: innermost  Replaced monthly during menstrual cycle o Basal Layer: deepest • Cervix: more rigid and less contractile than rest of uterus o Cervical Canal: lined with mucous glands --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What are the functions of the vagina? - Female organ of copulation - Allows menstrual flow and childbirth • Hymen: covers the vasginal opening or orifice - Muscular walls with mucous membrane allow expansion (childbirth) • Fornix: superior domed portion attached to sides of cervix --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Identify the parts of the female external genitalia. • Vulva • Vestibule: region of vaginal and urethra opening • Labia Minora: form borders on sides • Clitoris: erectile tissue • Copora Cavernosa: expanded at bases to form crus of the clitoris • Corpora Spongiosa: • Labia Majora: unite to form mons pubis (subcutaneous fat) • Vaginal Orifice: in lateral margins, erectile tissue called bulb of the vestibule o Homologous to corpus spongiosum of male What is the physiology of female reproduction?  Puberty o Begins with menarche o GnRH levels increase (hypothalamus)  Menstrual Cycle o 18-40 days (reference = 28 days)  Phases • Menses: period of hemorrhage once/cycle • Menstruation: discharge of blood and other elements of the uterine epithelium membrane • Proliferative and Follicular Phase • Secretory and Luteal Phase  Menses • Amenorrhea: absence of a menstrual cycle • Menopause: cessation of menstrual cycles --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What happens during the menstrual cycle? • Day 1: first day of menstruation (lasts 4-5 days) • Ovulation: approximately half period (14 days in reference cycle) DAY 1 --------------------------------------OVULATION-------------------------------------DAY 1 Menses Proliferative Phase Secretory Phase (Follicular) (Luteal) a) Development of uterine mucosa a) Maturation and secretion of uterine glands b) Development of ovarian follicles b) Existence of corpus luteum - Controlled by monthly hormone cycle of hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries o Feedback mechanism (stimulatory and inhibitory) • Ovarian Cycle (follicular and luteal phases) o Changes in ovary during and after maturation of oocyte o Controlled by pituitary hormones • Uterine Cycle (proliferative and secretory phases) o Preparation of uterus to receive fertilized ovum o If implantation does not occur, the stratum functionalis is shed during menstruation  Stratum Functionalis: most superficial layer w/in uterus • Vascularised layer • Controlled by ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone) What is the ovarian cycle and what causes it to occur? - Cyclical changes in ovaries in sexually mature, non-pregnant females  FSH (anterior pituitary) o Stimulated by GnRH (early in menstrual cycle) > FSH and LH o Stimulates follicle development (approx. 20-25), only 1 is usually ovulated o Some developed follicles may ovulate in later cycles, others degenerate 1. Follicular Phase (prior to ovulation)  Follicle development produces estrogen leading to: a) Uterine and epithelial proliferation (preparation for implantation) b) Positive feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary  Leads to LH and FSH “surge”  Triggers ovulation and follicle development into corpus luteum - Important source of hormones • Estrogen production 
More Less

Related notes for KINESIOL 1YY3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit