Reproductive System

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Danny M.Pincivero

Chapter 28 – The Reproductive System Female Reproductive System What is oogenesis and what is its role in fertilization? • Oogenesis: production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries Oogonia Cells from which oocytes develop  Primary Oocytes th 5 million by the 4 month of prenatal life Surrounded by granulosa cells (primordial follicle)  Primary Follicle  Secondary Follicle  Graafian Follicle “Mature” follicle • Ovulation: release of a secondary oocyte form an ovary o Graafian follicle  corpus luteum • Fertilization: sperm cell binds to plasma membrane of a secondary oocyte o Secondary oocyte completes meiosis II forming one polar body o Fertilized egg now a zygote  Fate of corpus luteum o If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists o If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What are the uterine (fallopian) tubes composed of? • Mesosalpinx: part of broad ligament o opens directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary • Fimbriae: long, thin processes that extend from the infundibulum • Ampulla: widest part, where fertilization occurs - Three layers: outer serosa, middle muscular layer, and inner mucosa o Provides nutrients for oocyte/ embryonic mass o Cilia moves fluid and oocyte through the tube towards uterus --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Identify the parts of the uterus. - Parts: body, isthmus, cervis, and fundus  Ligaments: broad, round, uterosacral • Round: from uterus through inguinal canals to labia majora • Uterosacral: attach lateral wall of uterus to sacrum  Composed of 3 layers • Perimetrium > Serous membrane • Myometrium > Smooth muscle • Endometrium > mucous membrane o Functional Layer: innermost  Replaced monthly during menstrual cycle o Basal Layer: deepest • Cervix: more rigid and less contractile than rest of uterus o Cervical Canal: lined with mucous glands --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What are the functions of the vagina? - Female organ of copulation - Allows menstrual flow and childbirth • Hymen: covers the vasginal opening or orifice - Muscular walls with mucous membrane allow expansion (childbirth) • Fornix: superior domed portion attached to sides of cervix --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Identify the parts of the female external genitalia. • Vulva • Vestibule: region of vaginal and urethra opening • Labia Minora: form borders on sides • Clitoris: erectile tissue • Copora Cavernosa: expanded at bases to form crus of the clitoris • Corpora Spongiosa: • Labia Majora: unite to form mons pubis (subcutaneous fat) • Vaginal Orifice: in lateral margins, erectile tissue called bulb of the vestibule o Homologous to corpus spongiosum of male What is the physiology of female reproduction?  Puberty o Begins with menarche o GnRH levels increase (hypothalamus)  Menstrual Cycle o 18-40 days (reference = 28 days)  Phases • Menses: period of hemorrhage once/cycle • Menstruation: discharge of blood and other elements of the uterine epithelium membrane • Proliferative and Follicular Phase • Secretory and Luteal Phase  Menses • Amenorrhea: absence of a menstrual cycle • Menopause: cessation of menstrual cycles --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What happens during the menstrual cycle? • Day 1: first day of menstruation (lasts 4-5 days) • Ovulation: approximately half period (14 days in reference cycle) DAY 1 --------------------------------------OVULATION-------------------------------------DAY 1 Menses Proliferative Phase Secretory Phase (Follicular) (Luteal) a) Development of uterine mucosa a) Maturation and secretion of uterine glands b) Development of ovarian follicles b) Existence of corpus luteum - Controlled by monthly hormone cycle of hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries o Feedback mechanism (stimulatory and inhibitory) • Ovarian Cycle (follicular and luteal phases) o Changes in ovary during and after maturation of oocyte o Controlled by pituitary hormones • Uterine Cycle (proliferative and secretory phases) o Preparation of uterus to receive fertilized ovum o If implantation does not occur, the stratum functionalis is shed during menstruation  Stratum Functionalis: most superficial layer w/in uterus • Vascularised layer • Controlled by ovarian hormones (estrogen and progesterone) What is the ovarian cycle and what causes it to occur? - Cyclical changes in ovaries in sexually mature, non-pregnant females  FSH (anterior pituitary) o Stimulated by GnRH (early in menstrual cycle) > FSH and LH o Stimulates follicle development (approx. 20-25), only 1 is usually ovulated o Some developed follicles may ovulate in later cycles, others degenerate 1. Follicular Phase (prior to ovulation)  Follicle development produces estrogen leading to: a) Uterine and epithelial proliferation (preparation for implantation) b) Positive feedback on hypothalamus and anterior pituitary  Leads to LH and FSH “surge”  Triggers ovulation and follicle development into corpus luteum - Important source of hormones • Estrogen production 
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