Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03
INJURY AND TESTING
Acute Injury What causes the acute anatomical failure?
Inflammation Response to an injury
Identify the Injury
Initial Care How do we start the care process? What are we going to do for the athlete?
– Lining tissues at interface of body, nasal passages, airways, skin
– Border of interface between inner and outer body
– Active, contractile
– Very cellular and metabolically active
– Makes connections b/w structures, gives support, gives structure
– Attaches muscle to muscle, muscle to bone
– Blood, adipose tissue and bone are all connective tissues
– Most of the time, we’re dealing with healing at connective tissue and muscular failure
Most of the time we are dealing with connective or muscular damage.
Mast cells (immune system cells)
Very low in cellular component
Cells specific to tissue type (ex. Bone cells called osteoblasts, osteocytes. Tendon cells called
Larger mass of connective tissue ECM, bulk of mass of ligament or tendon
EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM)
Lateral collateral ligament of knee
Collagen fibers, gives you strength and tension, collagen fails when things go wrong
Long strong fibers
Elastin fibers, stretch and rebound back to original shape
Subcomponent: Ground Substance
Gel like substance, wraps around all fibers, cells
Gives tissues viscous behaviour
As it cools, becomes less runny
Helps to resist compressive forces (GAGs)
One of the key cells in cellular component
Fiber builder, responsible for building collagen
COLLAGEN Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03
Gives us strength in tension
Long, strong fiber that you can pull apart to a certain extent
The stuff that fails when things go wrong
Stretch and rebound back to original shape
Look at extra
Acts like water sponges
Can improve health of joints and cartilage
Attracts water into tissue
Get a gel-like consistency
Weight bearing; resists compressive force
Falls in previous category
Substance often fused into knee
Improves health of cartilage
Biomechanics of Injury
1. Low CSA affects pathology of tissue. Weaker ligament due to prior injury (ex. A girl blew out her
Achilles just by doing a side step in dance). PCL has great CSA, higher peak strength, greater stiffness.
2. Length of tissue; long ligaments allow more joint ROM before failure. Shorter ligaments easier to
1. Speed; the faster you load the tissue, the greater the chance of failure.
2. Direction; tensile (stretch), compressive (crush), sheer.
3. Magnitude of force applied can affect failure of tissue.
Mechanisms of Injury
Compression – compressing
Tensile – stretching, applying to length of tissue
Sheer – force applied parallel to structure surface, most damaging to cartilage that covers ends of bones. Skin,
road rash, blisters.
1. Toe Zone
-apply tensile load, stretch collagen slightly
2. Elastic Zone
-increasing tensile load, amount of pull you can
apply and lengthen. Collagen can return to original
shape. No injuries.
3. Plastic Zone
-failure of collagen leading to rapid downfall. Point
of no return. Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03
-Reflection of tension in muscle as it contracts through ROM
-As you contract a muscle, peak tension is at its midway length po