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Kin 3K03: Sports Injuries (Injury And Testing Summary)

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Krista M Baker

Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03 INJURY AND TESTING Intro Tissue Structure Acute Injury  What causes the acute anatomical failure? Inflammation  Response to an injury Identify the Injury Initial Care  How do we start the care process? What are we going to do for the athlete? Tissue Structure EPITHELIAL – Lining tissues at interface of body, nasal passages, airways, skin – Border of interface between inner and outer body NEURAL *MUSCULAR – Active, contractile – Very cellular and metabolically active *CONNECTIVE – Makes connections b/w structures, gives support, gives structure – Attaches muscle to muscle, muscle to bone – Blood, adipose tissue and bone are all connective tissues – Most of the time, we’re dealing with healing at connective tissue and muscular failure  Most of the time we are dealing with connective or muscular damage. Connective Tissue  Mast cells (immune system cells)  Very low in cellular component  Cells specific to tissue type (ex. Bone cells called osteoblasts, osteocytes. Tendon cells called teneocytes)  Larger mass of connective tissue  ECM, bulk of mass of ligament or tendon Glossary  EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) Subcomponent: Top  Lateral collateral ligament of knee  Collagen fibers, gives you strength and tension, collagen fails when things go wrong  Long strong fibers  Elastin fibers, stretch and rebound back to original shape Subcomponent: Ground Substance  Gel like substance, wraps around all fibers, cells  Gives tissues viscous behaviour  As it cools, becomes less runny  Helps to resist compressive forces (GAGs)  FIBROBLASTS  One of the key cells in cellular component  Fiber builder, responsible for building collagen  COLLAGEN Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03  Gives us strength in tension  Long, strong fiber that you can pull apart to a certain extent  The stuff that fails when things go wrong  ELASTIN  Elastic behaviour  Stretch and rebound back to original shape  Look at extra  GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS (GAGs)  Acts like water sponges  Can improve health of joints and cartilage  Attracts water into tissue  Get a gel-like consistency  Weight bearing; resists compressive force  HYALURONIC ACID  Falls in previous category  Substance often fused into knee  Improves health of cartilage Biomechanics of Injury Tissue Factors 1. Low CSA affects pathology of tissue. Weaker ligament due to prior injury (ex. A girl blew out her Achilles just by doing a side step in dance). PCL has great CSA, higher peak strength, greater stiffness. 2. Length of tissue; long ligaments allow more joint ROM before failure. Shorter ligaments easier to disrupt. Load Factors 1. Speed; the faster you load the tissue, the greater the chance of failure. 2. Direction; tensile (stretch), compressive (crush), sheer. 3. Magnitude of force applied can affect failure of tissue. Mechanisms of Injury Compression – compressing Tensile – stretching, applying to length of tissue Sheer – force applied parallel to structure surface, most damaging to cartilage that covers ends of bones. Skin, road rash, blisters. 1. Toe Zone -apply tensile load, stretch collagen slightly (uncrimping) 2. Elastic Zone -increasing tensile load, amount of pull you can apply and lengthen. Collagen can return to original shape. No injuries. 3. Plastic Zone -failure of collagen leading to rapid downfall. Point of no return. Sports Injuries: Kin 3K03 -Reflection of tension in muscle as it contracts through ROM -As you contract a muscle, peak tension is at its midway length po
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