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[KINESIOL 1A03] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (215 pages long)Premium

215 pages143 viewsFall 2012

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KINESIOL 1A03
Professor
Krista Howarth
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
KINESIOL 1A03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body
Anatomy – science of body structure and the relationships among them
e.g. Embryology, Developmental biology, cell biology, histology, surface anatomy,
Physiology – science of body functions – how the body parts work
e.g. Neurophysiology, endocrinology, cardiovascular physiology, immunology, respiratory physiology, renal physiology,
exercise physiology, pathophysiology
Dissection is the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationships
Levels of structural organization in the human body
1. Chemical level: atoms, molecules e.g. C, H, N, O; DNA, glucose
2. Cellular level: cells e.g. muscle cells, neurons, epithelial cells
3. Tissue level: tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a
particular function.
a. Four basic types of tissue
a.i. Epithelial tissue
a.ii. Connective tissue
a.iii. Muscular tissue
a.iv. Nervous tissue
4. Organ level: organs are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues. E.g. stomach,
skin, bones, heart, liver, lungs and brain
5. System level: consists of related organs with a common function. E.g. digestive system: which breaks down and
absorbs food. Related organs include the mouth, salivary glands, pharnx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine
etc
6. Organismal level: all the parts of the human body functioning together
Eleven Systems of the Human Body
1. Integumentary System
a. Skin and accessories: hair, nails, sweat glands and oil glands
b. Functions to protect the body, thermoregulation, eliminates some wastes, helps make vitamin D,
sensations e.g. touch, pain, warmth and cold
2. Skeletal System
a. Bones and joints and cartilages
1
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Chapter 1: An Introduction to the Human Body
b. Functions to support and protect the body, providing surface area for muscle attachments, aids in body
mvmt, houses cells, stores minerals and lipids
3. Muscular System
a. Muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue
b. Functions to produce body movements, generates heat
4. Nervous system
a. Brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs e.g. eyes and ears
b. Functions to generate action potential to regulate body activities, detects changes in environment and
interprets changes and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions
5. Endocrine system
a. Hormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thryoid gland,
parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes)
b. Functions to regulate body activities by releasing hormones – chemical messengers
6. Cardiovascular system
a. Blood, heart and blood vessels
b. Heart pumps blood through blood vessels, carrying oxygen and nutrients to cells and wastes away,
regulate acid-base balance, temp, and water content, blood component help defend disease and repair
7. Digestive system
a. Organs of the GI tract, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small and large intestine, anus, and accessory organs
that assist in digestive processes, such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
b. Achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, eliminates solid wastes
8. Urinary system
a. Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
b. Produces, stores and eliminates urine, eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical
composition of blood; maintain acid base balance, mineral balance, regulate production of RBC
9. Lymphatic System and Immunity
a. Lymphatic fluid (lymph) and vessels, also includes spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and tonsils
b. Returns proteins and and fluid to blood; carries lipids from GI tract to blood; includes structures where
lymphocytes that protect against disease-causing microves mature and proliferate
10. Respiratory System
2
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