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[KINESIOL 1A03] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (164 pages long!)

164 pages103 viewsFall 2012

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KINESIOL 1A03
Professor
Maureen Mac Donald
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
KINESIOL 1A03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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1A03 Lecture 1: Anatomical
Terminology
- Structure determines function
- Material outside the cells that give a tissue its characteristics
- Anatomical right/left is always in respect to the actual person / specimen you’re looking at
- Cephalic – towards the brain, caudal – towards the tail (superior and inferior referencing to
head, not used when referring to limbs); used for head, neck, torso
- Proximal – nearer to, distal – further away ; only used for linear structures
- Ventral – closer to naval, dorsal – closer to spine
- Arm = upper limb, leg = lower limb
oBrachial (arm) only covers shoulder to elbow, not the entire arm
oCrural (Leg) knee to ankle, not the entire leg
- Sagittal (means arrow ) – splits right from left
- Frontal / coronal – splits anterior and posterior
- Transverse – splits superior and inferior
- Diaphragm is a skeletal muscle, 1/3 of the way down; under voluntary control. Can be
involuntary or voluntary
- Mediastinum: Area between the border of the lungs
- Abdominal and pelvic cavities don`t have define borders. Thoracic bordered by ribcage,
sternum, spine; abdominal cavity is just by abdominal muscles
- “shadow borders”
- Serious membranes – lines cavity and the membrane stuck to surface of the organ itself
- One side closer to cavity wall (interior portion of cavity), fluid in between, other side next to the
organ itself (eg heart)
- Embryology determines where the organ is exposed / where it grew out of / in to eg. Heart
where the aorta leaves, lungs at the hylem?
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- Cavity wall – parietal serous membrane; inner wall next to organ – visceral
- Pericardium refers to the heart, pleura refers to lungs, peritoneum refers to abdomen
Lecture 3: Embryology
- Don’t study chapter 28
- Cervix - physical narrowing of the vagina
- Vagina, uterus, and uterine tube linings are all composed of muscle
- Acrosome – head of sperm; 200 million sperm deposited in vagina, only 1% make it through the
cervix b/c action of flagella (some may not be formed properly)
- Lining of uterus becomes thickened and vascular in preparation for a fertilized egg
- Muscular contractions bring sperm up through fallopian / uterine tubes
oStimulated by interaction between sperm and secretions of uterus
- Ovulation happens unilaterally (only one egg comes down from one side each cycle)
- 200 sperm left to fertilize egg by ampulla site of fertilization
- Fimbrae are separate structures from ovary; produced egg called the secondary oocyte
oSecondary b/c only completed first stage of meiosis ??
- Space in between fimbrae and ovary where fertilization occurs
- Ectopic pregnancy – fertilization doesn’t occur in the ampulla but occurs in the abdominal or
pelvic cavity – dividing or growing cell mass not implanted in the uterus
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