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KINESIOL 1A03 Final: Anatomy Final Exam Notes
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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KINESIOL 1A03
Professor
Krista Howarth Maureen J Macdonald

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Anatomy Final Exam Notes
Homeostasis
Exercise = increased body temperature; increased heart rate
• Eleated outside teperatures also affet the od durig exercise
Sweat - comes from a variety of body fluids including blood. Therefore, the more you sweat, the more
decrease in blood volume throughout the body.
• If our blood volume begins to decrease, your blood pressure decreases as well.
• We eed to hae a sigifiat aout of lood pressure i order for lood to flow easily throughout
the body
Heart Rate - # of times your heart beats/minute
Increase thirst = increase water intake: allows to replenish these water stores
• Your od is usig seeral phsiologial resposes to aitai a ostat internal environment
Homeostasis definition: - The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within
the body. (Fairly stable)
- The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its
physiological processes. (maintaining a constant environment)
- Factors: Values of variables fluctuate around the set point (average is around 37.0 degrees Celsius as
body temp.) to establish a normal range of values.
- Set Point: the ideal normal value of a variable
Role of Organ Systems
- Help control the body's internal environment
- All cells need fuel/oxygen in order to function. (maintain constant cell energy production)
- Fuel examples: FOOD (Carbs, Fat, Protein)
- Respiratory system brings in oxygen and transports it throughout the body
- Waste products are excreted such as CO2 (respiratory), feces (digestive), urine (urinary)
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How do we Maintain Homeostasis?
- Uses feedback systems that monitor our internal environment in order to adjust the body to certain
changes
- Two systems: 1) Negative (Good) and 2) Positive (typically not so good)
- Negative: Able to maintain a balanced internal system
- Positive: Alterations in an internal system
Three Components
1) Receptor - monitors a value of some variable (ex: detect changes in blood pressure)
2) Control Center - establishes the set point (found in nervous system and sends signals to react to
changes)
3) Effector - can change the value of the variable
*Stimulus: deviation from the set point; detected by the receptor
*Response: what is produced by the effector
Negative Feedback
- Any deviation from the set point is made smaller (resisted)
- Examples: regulation of blood pressure, body temp., blood sugar levels
Positive Feedback
- When the value starts to deviate from the set point; this deviation is amplified and therefore
homeostasis is not maintained
- When a deviation occurs, the response is to make the deviation greater
- Usually in normal, healthy individuals, leads away from homeostasis and can result in death
- Example of normal + feedback: childbirth
- Example of harmful + feedback: after hemorrhage, BP drops and the heart's ability to pump blood
decreases
Consequences of Homeostasis Disruption
1) Disease
2) Death
*Every bodily function is to overall, maintain homeostasis within the body!!!*
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Terminology and the Body Plan
Anatomy: Scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure
Physiology: Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things
*Function is often dictated by structure*
Structural & Functional Organizations
Chemical Level: interaction of atoms
Cell Level: structural and functional unit of living organisms
Tissue Level: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them (Four basic types: epithelial,
connective, muscle, and nervous)
Organ Level: two or more tissues functioning together
Organ System Level: group of organs functioning together
Organism Level: any living thing (can be composed of one cell or many cells)
Terminology
- Anatomical Position: Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward
- Other Body Positions: 1) Supine: lying face upward, 2) Prone: lying face downward
- Directional Terms: 1) Superior (Cephalic - towards the head end) vs. Inferior (Caudal - towards the tail
end) toward or away from the head; 2) Medial vs. Lateral relative to the midline; 3) Proximal vs. Distal
used to describe linear structures (in other words referring to limbs); 4) Superficial vs. Deep relative to
the surface of the body (ex: skin is most superficial since it is on the outside of the body, while your
heart is deep since it is towards the inside of the body); 5) Anterior (Ventral - towards the belly) vs.
Posterior (Dorsal - towards the back; ex: dorsal fin of a dolphin). Anterior is forward, while Posterior is
toward the back.
Body Planes
- Sagittal: vertically through the body - separates right and left
- Frontal (Coronal): divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
- Transverse/Cross: divides body into superior and inferior sections
- Oblique: other than at a right angle
Planes Through an Organ
- Longitudinal: cut along the length of an organ
- Cross/transverse: cut at right angle to length of the organ
- Oblique: cut at any but a right angle
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Description
Anatomy Final Exam Notes Homeostasis Exercise = increased body temperature; increased heart rate Elevated outside temperatures also affect the body during exercise Sweat - comes from a variety of body fluids including blood. Therefore, the more you sweat, the more decrease in blood volume throughout the body. If your blood volume begins to decrease, your blood pressure decreases as well. We need to have a significant amount of blood pressure in order for blood to flow easily throughout the body Heart Rate - # of times your heart beats/minute Increase thirst = increase water intake: allows to replenish these water stores Your body is using several physiological responses to maintain a constant internal environment Homeostasis definition: - The existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body. (Fairly stable) - The ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes. (maintaining a constant environment) - Factors: Values of variables fluctuate around the set point (average is around 37.0 degrees Celsius as body temp.) to establish a normal range of values. - Set Point: the ideal normal value of a variable Role of Organ Systems - Help control the body's internal environment - All cells need fuel/oxygen in order to function. (maintain constant cell energy production) - Fuel examples: FOOD (Carbs, Fat, Protein) - Respiratory system brings in oxygen and transports it throughout the body - Waste products are excreted such as CO2 (respiratory), feces (digestive), urine (urinary) How do we Maintain Homeostasis? - Uses feedback systems that monitor our internal environment in order to adjust the body to certain changes - Two systems: 1) Negative (Good) and 2) Positive (typically not so good) - Negative: Able to maintain a balanced internal system - Positive: Alterations in an internal system Three Components 1) Receptor - monitors a value of some variable (ex: detect changes in blood pressure) 2) Control Center - establishes the set point (found in nervous system and sends signals to react to changes) 3) Effector - can change the value of the variable *Stimulus: deviation from the set point; detected by the receptor *Response: what is produced by the effector Negative Feedback - Any deviation from the set point is made smaller (resisted) - Examples: regulation of blood pressure, body temp., blood sugar levels Positive Feedback - When the value starts to deviate from the set point; this deviation is amplified and therefore homeostasis is not maintained - When a deviation occurs, the response is to make the deviation greater - Usually in normal, healthy individuals, leads away from homeostasis and can result in death - Example of normal + feedback: childbirth - Example of harmful + feedback: after hemorrhage, BP drops and the heart's ability to pump blood decreases Consequences of Homeostasis Disruption 1) Disease 2) Death *Every bodily function is to overall, maintain homeostasis within the body!!!* Terminology and the Body Plan Anatomy: Scientific discipline that investigates the body's structure Physiology: Scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things *Function is often dictated by structure* Structural & Functional Organizations Chemical Level: interaction of atoms Cell Level: structural and functional unit of living organisms Tissue Level: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them (Four basic types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous) Organ Level: two or more tissues functioning together Organ System Level: group of organs functioning together Organism Level: any living thing (can be composed of one cell or many cells) Terminology - Anatomical Position: Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward - Other Body Positions: 1) Supine: lying face upward, 2) Prone: lying face downward - Directional Terms: 1) Superior (Cephalic - towards the head end) vs. Inferior (Caudal - towards the tail end) toward or away from the head; 2) Medial vs. Lateral relative to the midline; 3) Proximal vs. Distal used to describe linear structures (in other words referring to limbs); 4) Superficial vs. Deep relative to the surface of the body (ex: skin is most superficial since it is on the outside of the body, while your heart is deep since it is towards the inside of the body); 5) Anterior (Ventral - towards the belly) vs. Posterior (Dorsal - towards the back; ex: dorsal fin of a dolphin). Anterior is forward, while Posterior is toward the back. Body Planes - Sagittal: vertically through the body - separates right and left - Frontal (Coronal): divides the body into anterior and posterior sections - Transverse/Cross: divides body into superior and inferior sections - Oblique: other than at a right angle Planes Through an Organ - Longitudinal: cut along the length of an organ - Cross/transverse: cut at right angle to length of the organ - Oblique: cut at any but a right angle Trunk Cavities - Diaphragm: divides body cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. - Mediastinum: contains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs (ex: heart) - Abdominal Cavity: contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys - Pelvic Cavity: contains urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, reproductive organs *Starts at the top of the coccyx* Serous Membranes - Cover the organs of trunk cavities and line the cavity - Inner wall represents visceral serous membrane - Outer wall represents parietal serous membrane - Cavity between two membranes filled with lubricating serous fluid that is produced by the membranes - Pericardium: refers to heart - Pleura: refers to lungs and thoracic cavity - Peritoneum: refers to abdominopelvic cavity
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