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KINESIOL 1A03 Final: Kin1A03 Final Exam Review

103 pages90 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
KINESIOL 1A03
Professor
Krista Howarth
Study Guide
Final

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KINESIOL 1A03 (Anatomy) Exam Summary
1
EMBRYOLOGY:
- Embryonic period extends from fertilization through the eighth week of development;
development of organ systems.
- Fetal period last 30 weeks; organ systems grow and mature.
Overview:
1. Fertilization occurs within the uterine tube 12-
24 hours after ovulation.
2. Cleavage first cleavage completed about 30
hours after fertilization.
3. Morula 3-4 days after fertilization.
4. Blastocyst 4.5-5 days after fertilization.
5. Implantation 6 days after fertilization.
Fertilization:
- Merging of genetic information from sperm and
secondary oocyte.
- Sperm swim from the vagina to the cervix using their tails.
- Sperm pass through the uterus and uterine tubes due to contraction of the walls of these
structures.
- Must penetrate the corona radiata and the zona pellucida.
- Corona Radiata Zona Pellucida Plasma Membrane of
Secondary Oocyte Cytoplasm of Secondary Oocyte.
- Corona Radiata penetrated due to the enzymes of the
spe’s aosoe, alog ith tail oeet.
- Zona Pellucida glycoprotein ZP3 (receptor on zona
pellucida) binds to the sperm; acrosomal enzymes are
released to digest a path in the zona pellucida.
- Haploid nucleus in the sperm becomes the male pronucleus;
haploid nucleus in the fertilized ovum becomes the female
pronucleus.
- Syngamy when the two haploids merge; form a diploid zygote.
Cleavage:
Day 1:
- Zygote begins mitotic division (cleavage).
- First division takes around 6 hours; successive divisions take less
time.
Day 2:
- Second cleavage is complete, yielding 4 cells.
Morula:
Day 4:
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KINESIOL 1A03 (Anatomy) Exam Summary
2
- End of 3rd day 16 cells; each division yields blastomeres (smaller and
smaller cells).
- 4th day cluster of cells form (morula); still surrounded by the zona
pellucida, and still the size of the zygote.
Days 4/5:
- Morula enters the uterine cavity, and is nourished by uterine milk.
- 32 cells fluid inside the morula rearranges the blastomeres into the blastocoel
(blastocyst cavity).
- Whole mass is called a blastocyst.
Blastocyst:
Day 5:
- Two different cell populations arise as the blastocyst is formed:
o Embryoblast (inner cell mass) develops in the embryo.
o Trophoblast (outer cell mass) develops in the chorionic sac
surrounding the fetus, and the fetal portion of the placenta.
Implantation (Days 6-7):
- Blastocyst is free in the uterine cavity for 2 days.
- Implants by attaching to the endometrium at around 6 days after
fertilization.
- Occurs in either the posterior portion of the fundus or the body of
the uterus.
- Embryoblast orients towards the endometrium.
- After implantation, the
endometrium is called the
decidua.
- Has different regions named
based on their positions relative
to the site of the implanted
blastocyst.
8 Days:
- Layer in closest contact with endometrium: syncytiotrophoblast.
o Does’t hae as uh ellula stutue; loose ouda i tes of those ells.
o Secrete enzymes that digest/liquefy the endometrial cells.
o Allows for the embryo to embed into the endometrial structure.
- Deep to that: cytotrophoblast.
- These two layers will come to form the chorion (fetal membrane).
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KINESIOL 1A03 (Anatomy) Exam Summary
3
o Also begin to secrete hCG (human
Chorionic Gonadotropin); only appears
once these cell structures become active.
o Hormone that helps to maintain the
lining of the endometrium.
o Most typically detected in home
pregnancy tests.
- Embryoblast develops into two layers: hypoblast
and epiblast.
- Hypoblast (primitive endoderm).
- Align into the bilaminar embryonic disc.
o Epiblast arranges itself so that it has a
cavity inside (amniotic cavity); eventually
enlarges and surrounds the whole embryo.
- Yolk sac cellular layer is now fully developed in terms of the growth of the hypoblast.
- Hypoblast cells start to migrate towards the amniotic cavity (exocoelomic membrane).
o Exocoelomic membrane combines with the hypoblasts to create the yolk sac.
9 Days:
- Lacunae begin to form from the
syncytiotrophoblasts; open cavities where blood
supply/placenta form.
12 Days:
- Yolk sac is fully formed.
- Amnion/amniotic cavity still present.
- Extraembryonic mesoderm form from the cells of
the yolk sac; also start to form a connective tissue layer around the yolk sac/amnion.
o Also forms cavities; eventually turn into a single, larger cavity called the
extraembryonic coelom (coelom =
cavity).
- Lacunae are getting larger; some are linked to
capillary/blood vessel structures in the
endometrium; form sinusoids (endometrial
capillaries around the developing embryo),
and will eventually link up and form a blood
vessel network.
- Extraembryonic mesoderm, together with the
trophoblast cells, will form an external
structure called the chorion.
o Blocks antibody production from the mother, promotes production of immune
cells (T-lymphocytes), continues to produce hCG which supports the lining of the
endometrium.
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