KINESIOL 1AA3 Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Capillary, Smooth Muscle Tissue, Muscle

79 views93 pages
KINESIOL 1AA3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 93 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 93 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Kinesiology 1AA3
Cardiovascular System - Heart Anatomy! ! "
Cardiovascular System"
Function: Transport mechanism for human body"
1. Nutrients: macronutrients and micronutrients"
2. Gases: oxygen and carbon dioxide"
3. End products of metabolism (including hormones) - ex. one of the byproducts of
high intensity workouts is lactate, heat"
Other functions: Immunity, tissue repair, body temperature "
Components of CV system:"
Heart: central pump - 2 separate pumps technically"
Blood Vessels (vasculature): network of tubing - connect dierent parts of the body to
each other"
Blood: Fluid contained within the CV system"
Cardiovascular system works very closely with respiratory system (lungs)"
Pathway"
Blood enters into the right side of the heart from the body"
Then it will move through the heart "
Blue represents deoxygenated blood"
Pump the blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs"
In the lungs we have an area for gas exchange "
We will only see blue blood turn to red in areas where we have gas exchange"
Capillaries - areas where we have gas exchange involved"
Move back to the left side of the right"
Pumps blood back to the entire body"
Left side of the heart is a lot bigger in terms of thickness "
Left side has higher pressure as well"
Skeletal muscle one of the highest consumers of oxygen"
Where the blood goes in the body - systemic circulation - left side to the body"
Blood going into the lungs - pulmonary circulation - right side to the lungs"
Blood vessel moving towards the heart —> vein"
Away from the heart —> Artery"
The Heart"
Functions of the Heart"
Generating blood pressure"
We need to have high blood pressure at the start of the tubing and then the
pressure will drop as it moves towards the body and away from the heart"
This is thought to be the driving pressure in order to keep the fluid moving in one
direction"
Pressure begins at the heart - maintained as it moves away by changing things
such as the size of our arteries"
Routing blood: separates pulmonary, systemic, coronary circulations"
Keeps the blood supplies separate"
Ensuring one-way blood flow: Valves (preventing back flow)"
Valves keep blood moving in one direction"
Regulating blood supply"
Changes in contraction rate and force match blood delivery to changing metabolic
needs"
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 93 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Example: riding a bike (blood flow to legs increase, blood flow to some internal
organs decrease) "
One of the main dictators of how quick blood is going into your body"
How quick your heart is beating - heart rate"
How much fluid it has or how much its beating - stroke volume"
These together dictates your cardiac output"
Heart location"
The heart is located in the mediastinum - area in between the lungs in the thoracic cavity"
Pleural cavities surrounding lungs"
Job of pleural cavity"
Serous fluid found in the cavities"
Reduces friction"
Majority of the mediastinum is taken up by the heart tissue itself"
The heart is covered by the pericardial cavity"
Pulmonary trunk - blood vessels that leave the heart to go to the lungs - pulmonary
circulation"
Aorta - takes the blood out of the heart and into the body"
Other things found in the mediastinum"
Esophagus"
Majority of the mass of the heart sits in the left side of the body"
About 2/3 of the mass of the heart sits on the left side"
The left lung has fewer lobes in order to accommodate for the heart"
Heart Orientation"
Two portions of the heart"
Heart is about the size of your first"
The point thats at the bottom of the heart that aims anteriorly is called the apex of the
heart "
So its the rounded part or the cone of the heart - where the ventricles are located"
Pointed anteriorly and inferiorly towards the left"
Other side of the heart - opposite to the apex - is known as the base of the heart "
Don't be fooled by base = bottom"
Think of it as the flat portion of the heart"
Near the atria - superior side of the heart"
Superiorly and posteriorly to the right"
Apex is left and down"
Base is right and up"
Pericardium"
Made up of dierent layers"
Outermost layer - made of dense irregular connective tissue - fibrous pericardium"
Makes the outer hard sac that surrounds the heart"
Helps to create the amount of space that the heart can fill "
Helps to anchor the heart in the thoracic cavity"
Attaches to the vessels that leave the heart and the diaphragm"
Inner layer - Serous pericardium "
Parietal membranes line cavities "
Visceral line organs"
Fibrous cavity is the wall around the heart"
Parietal pericardium closely adheres to the fibrous"
In the case of the heart the visceral pericardium also has another name - epicardium"
The outermost layer thats actually attached to the heart is the epicardium"
In between the visceral and parietal we have the pericardial cavity filled with pericardial
fluid"
Allowing for reduction of friction"
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 93 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.