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Linguistic Review Exam

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Catherine Anderson

12/3/2012 9:22:00 AM Linguistic: the study of how language works – how it is used, how it is acquired, how it changed overtime, how it is represented in the brain Lungs  To exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen  To supply air for speech Vocal cords  To create seal over passage to lungs  To produce vibration for speech sounds Tongue  To move food to teeth and back into throat  To articulate vowels and consonants Teeth  To break up food  To provide place for articulation for consonant Lips  To seal oral cavity  To articulate vowels and consonants Nose  To assist in breathing  To provide nasal resonance during speech Language has to be creative, giving us the freedom to produce and understand new words and sentences as the need arises. We are able to recognize that certain utterances are not acceptable and simply do not belong in the language. Knowledge of this type is often called linguistic competence. Grammar: the mental system that allows human beings to form and interpret the sounds, words, and sentences of their language. Systematic constraints: boundaries within which innovation can occur. Components of a grammar:  Phonetics: the articulation and perception of speech sounds  Phonology: the patterning of speech sounds  Morphology: word formation  Syntax: Sentence formation  Semantics: the interpretation of words and sentences. Properties of Mental Grammar  Creativity/generality o All languages have a grammar.  Parity o All grammars are equal o There is no such thing as „good grammar‟ or a „bad grammar‟  Universality o Grammars are alike in a basic way o Principles and properties shared by all human languages  Mutability o Grammars change over time  Inaccessibility o Grammatical knowledge is subconscious o Not accessible to introspection (can‟t figure out how it works just by thinking about it) Perspectives on grammar:  Prescriptive grammar: gives the socially accepted rules for language use. o Ex. The English words Mary, merry, and marry should be pronounced differently because they are spelled differently.  Descriptive grammar: objective description of the knowledge that native speakers share. o Ex. English contains over twenty different consonant sounds. Phonetics: the sound of language 12/3/2012 9:22:00 AM Phonetics: the inventory and structure of the sounds of speech Phones(speech sounds): the wide variety of sounds Two ways to approach phonetics:  Articulatory phonetics: the physiological mechanisms of speech production  Acoustic phonetics: measuring and analyzing the physical properties of the sound waves we produce when we speak. IPA – International Phonetic Alphabet  Evolving since 1888  Symbols are enclosed with [ ] Segment: individual speech sound (phone) Features: reflect individual aspects of articulatory control as well as certain acoustic effects produced by articulation. Lungs: provide the moving air necessary for speech Larynx: contains the vocal folds that provide the source of the sound. Glottal states:  Voiceless o Vocal folds are pulled apart, air passes directly through the glottis without much interference  Voiced o Vocal folds are brought close together, but not tightly closed, air passing between them causes them to vibrate, producing sounds.  Whisper o Voiceless, but vocal folds are adjusted so that the anterior (front) portions are pulled close together while the posterior (back) portions are apart.  Murmur (breathy voice) o Voiced, but vocal folds are relaxed enough to allow enough air to escape to produce a simultaneous breathy effect. Sound classes:  Consonants: o Voiced or voiceless o Narrow or complete obstruction in the vocal tract  Vowels: o Typically voiced o Little obstruction in the vocal tract o Tend to be more sonorous o Louder and longer lasting o Can form the nucleus of a syllable  Glides o Characteristics of consonant and vowel o Like vowels in their articulation but are like consonants in a way that never form the nucleus of a syllable. Places of articulation  Bilabial o Involving both lips o Ex. Peer, bin  labio-dental o Involing lower lip and upper teeth o Ex. fire, vow  Dental o Tongue placed against or near the teeth o Ex. tempts, dire, sept, zizi  Interdental o Tongue placed between the teeth o Ex. this, thing  Alveolar o Tongue near or against just behind the upper front teeth o Ex. top, deer, soap, zip  alveo-palatal (=post-alveolar) o Just behind the alveolar ridge, the roof of the mouth rises sharply o Ex. show, measure, chip, judge  Palatals: o Highest part of the roof of the mouth o Ex. yes  Velar o Involving soft area towards the rear of the roof of the mouth o Ex. Hang, call, guy  Glottal o Using the vocal folds as primary articulators o Ex. [h]-heave and [?] –bottle Manner of Articulation  Stop o Made with complete closure either in the oral cavity or at the glottis.  Fricative o Produced with continuous airflow through the mouth. o Belong to a large class of sounds called continuants  Affricate o Non-continuant that shows a slow release of the closure of these sounds.  Nasal o All voiced o [n] [m] [n]  flap o tongue tip strikes the alveolar ridge as it passes across it o Ex. butter, butter.  Liquids: Ls and Rs o Laterals: varieties of l  Ex. please, clear o Diacritic: circle beneath the symbol [l] [r] which makes it voiceless  Ex. pull, full, car, far o Retroflex: r  Ex. ride, pride  Glides o [j] Ex. yes, boy o [w] wet, now o [M] (upside down w) when, who, where Dipthongs: transcribed as vowel-glide sequences.  Are single speech sound  Describe in terms of vowels and not glide  Ex. [aj], [aw] Articulatory Descriptions for Vowels  high, mid, low  front, (central), back  rounded, unrounded  tense, lax Diacritics  syllabic consonants  rhotic vowels  aspirated stops o The lag or brief delay before voicing of a following vowel, the vocalic voicing is accompanied by the release of air. o [small raised h] o [p], [t], [k]  nasalization  unreleased stops o Do not release word – final stops at all o [ ]  length o vowels and consonants whose articulation takes longer relative to the other ones. o [ ] Suprasegmentals: properties that form part of all phone‟s makeup no matter what their place or manner of articulation  Properties: o Pitch  Two kinds of controlled pitch movement  Tone (tone language): when differences in word meaning are signaled by differences in pitch.  Register tones: High, Med, Low (H, M, L)  Association line: line drawn from the letters to the vowel links the segment to their respective tone.  [„] low tone , [ ] high tone  Contour tones: when tones change pitch within a single syllabic element. Moving pitches that signal meaning difference. (ex. MH, HL…etc.)  Intonation: pitch movement in spoken utterances that is not related to differences in word.  Terminal (intonation) contour: Falling intonation at the end of an utterance.  Ex. Fred parked the car  Non-Terminal (intonation) contour: Rising or level intonation.  Ex. Are you hungry? Or … Sally, Fred, Helen, Joe  Downdrift: The phenomenom that each high is always lower than the preceding high tone, but higher than the low tone that immediately precedes it. o Loudness o Length  vowels and consonants whose articulation takes longer relative to the other ones.  [ː] : = triangles Stress: cover term for the combined effects of pitch, loudness, and length.  Stressed vowels are higher in pitch, longer, and louder.  Primary stress: [ ]  Secondary stress: [„] Coarticulation: Situations in which more than one articulator is active. Articulatory Processes: Articulatory adjustment during speech which typically functions to make words easier to articulate and perceive.  Assimilation o Involves sound changing to become more like nearby sounds o Regressive assimilation: the preceding segment takes on the nasality of the follow consonant. (a sound is influenced by what comes after it)  Ex. can‟t o Progressive assimilation: The nasality moves forward from the nasal consonant into the vowel. (a sound is influenced by what comes before it)  Ex. [mu] „about‟ in Scots Gaelic o Three main diff. kinds:  Voicing Assimilations:  Sound takes on the same voice as nearby sound  Includes voicing and devoicing  Assimilation for Place of Articulation  Sound takes on the same place of articulation as a nearby sound.  Assimilation for Manner of Articulation  Sound takes on the same manner of articulation as nearby sound.  Includes flapping: process in which dental or alveolar stop [t], [d] to a flap articulation  reduction & deletion o The process of simply removing a sound from a phonetic context. Frequently occurs in rapid speech o Ex. fifths: [fɪfθs] -> [fɪfs]  dissimilation o A sound changes to become less like a nearby sound so that the resulting sequence of sounds is easier to pronounce. o E.g. fifths: [fɪfθs] ->[fɪfts]  Epenthesis o The process which adds a segment to a phonetic context. Common in casual speech. o E.g. warmth: [warmθ] -> [warmpθ]  Metathesis o Process that changes the order of segments. Common in speech of young children. o E.g. animal -> aminal, prescribe -> percribe  Vowel reduction: o Vowel is pronounced as a full vowel when in a stressed syllable, and as a schwa when in an unstressed syllable. To identify processes:  If sound is missing: deletion  If sound has been added: Epenthesis  If order of sounds has changed: Metathesis  If a sound has changed: Assimilation o If changed phonetic property matches the property of the nearby sound: assimilation o If the phonetic properties do not match: Dissimilation Transcription Hints [r] for real, right..etc. [ɚ] for butter, bird, purr…etc. [ɾ] for butter, writer, putter, potter…etc. [l] for light, pill, please [l] for bottle, puddle, poodle [m] for bottom, winsome [n] for button, hidden [a], not [ɑ] for major diphthongs (i.e., [aj], [aw]…etc.) [e] and [o] are considered minor diphthongs and are transcribed as [ej] and [ow] [i] and [u] are sometimes considered minor diphthongs and transcribed as [ij] and [uw] Phonology: contrasts and patterns 12/3/2012 9:22:00 AM Phonology: the system that every language makes its own particular selection from the range of possible speech sounds and organizes them into a system of contrasts and patterns. Segments: An individual speech sound. Each IPA symbol represents a segment. Syllables: Segments can be grouped together to form a syllable. A syllable consists of a syllabic element (e.g. a vowel) plus any preceding or following segments. Features: Segments are made up of features. A feature is a unit that corresponds to a single piece of either articulatory or acoustic information. Features are the smallest type of phonological structure. Some sounds contrast with each other in that they can be used to distinguish between words, and some don‟t  Ex. [n] and [ŋ] contrast with each other because they are used to distinguish words like win from wing. [i] and [i:] don‟t contrast, which is why bee is the same word regardless of whether it is pronounced with a longer or shorter vowel. Minimal pairs: A minimal pair is defined as two phonetic forms that have different meanings and that differ by one sound that is in the same environment in bot
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