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Labour Studies
David Goutor

Knights of Labour  Knights wanted to mobilize workers not just about things going on in the workplace  When they get going they bring in people from all sorts of different places  Attract people who are interested in different kinds of organizations  Started as secret protestant organization  Most famous: Masons  Started in 1869 in Philadelphia  Broad and Flexible o If you worked, were interested in representing you o Not as strict/rigid as trade unions o Trade unions did not welcome workers from different trades o Knights wanted to organize as broadly as they can o Flexible: whatever works they are okay with  Mixed Assemblies o Basic units of organizing o A lot of assemblies were trade assemblies (lots of workers in one trade would form an assembly) o Mixed assemblies were workers from different trades  Small Town Organizing o Worked for small towns because would not have enough workers in a single trade to make assembly for that trade o Could make assembly out of all workers in town o Knights were successful in small and large areas o Made them even bigger threat because were not limited to one place, spreading very quickly and opening opportunities  Organizing Woman o First willing to recognize that women were working and wanted to organize o Women wanted to join the Knights (Knights let them) o Allowing women to be full members in an organization was unusual o Allowed women to hold executive positions Methods  Cooperation o Wanted to start workers cooperatives o Conditions would be better in workplaces o In some cases this worked (especially garment, carpentry, blacksmithing) o In a lot of cases it did not (ex. larger industries)  Education o Education was important because trying to raise awareness and change minds o Meant taking advantage of workers to talk to other workers about ideas/issues o Industrialism destroyed social aspect of talking in shopkeepers store o Wanted assembly hall to serve as place for workers to gather and talk  Media o Attracted a lot of talented people through media o Newspapers were largest (ex. Palladium of Labour) o Brainworkers: people who were workers but who also had a lot of skill and talent in other areas (ex. Phillips Thompson was a columnist for Palladium of Labour) Industrial Unionism  Base = Numbers o Mass Unionism o Craft unions were small and leverage was based on skill o Industrial unions organized everyone in an industry o Skill did not matter o Thought these unions would get more attention  Socialism o Appealed to socialists because included everyone o Socialists looking for broader sweeping change  Mining & Garment o Two established unions o United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) o So much cooperation down inside the mine o International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) o Very active in Canada and in the US o Both unions were in the AFL  British Columbia Industrial Unionism  Organizing all workers in an industry  Increasingly the motto that needs to be followed because of changing, dilution  Need mass unionism in wartime because are all getting frustrated Experience & Role of Immigrant Workers (Part One) Immigration & Development  National Policy (1)Protective tariff (raises prices on imports) (2)Build a national railway (3)Encourage immigration  Almost all of labour force is immigrants Late 19 Century  Did not do very well with trying to attract people to Canada  Did not bring in enough people to settle in Canada  1870s: 30,000 to 35,000  Early 1880s: 12,000  Late 1880s: under 90,000  Mid 1890s: Early 20 Century Boom  Large amounts of people began coming in  Economy takes off  Immigration takes off  1902: 90,000  1903: 138,660  1907: 272,409  1911: 331,288  1913: 400,870 Varied Experiences  Skilled Workers o Skilled workers came because knew there were jobs waiting for them o They were
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