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Labour Studies 1A03 Exam Notes

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McMaster University
Labour Studies
Sandra Colavecchia

Labour Studies Key Terms • Craft unions = small numbers for strength, industrial unions = large numbers for strength Rand Formula - is a workplace situation where the payment of trade union dues is mandatory regardless of the worker's union status. This formula is designed to ensure that no employee will opt out of the union simply to avoid dues yet reap the benefits of the union's accomplishments (such as ensuring higher wages, better job security or other benefits - Rand Formula by Ivan Rand (a precedent) o Management control  Said workers should be free to decide if they want to join the union – closed shops therefore infringe on liberty – gov. will not enforce it  All members of a bargaining unit should pay union dues  Union shops get higher wages and benefits  Free rider – isn’t a member but benefits – he said therefore that mandatory dues should be paid o Union Security  Management has to put up with too many little strikes on a day to day basis which is why management should have control – does not mean unions cannot have any power in the workplace…  Dues Check Off – automatically taking off money from union members paycheck to pay unions  financial security o Grievance System  Can file a grievance over a workplace issue  “work now, leave later” – have to keep working, no walking off  Rand says we are going to create a system for hearing grievances and if you can prove it they will make the company stop A whole huge quasi-judicial system was created “On –to-Ottawa” – “trekking” – walks and picks people to join the protest as they move along from Western Canada towards Ottawa during the Great Depression. Demands work or wage (No work? Then give us wages). They are known for travelling by empty rail way carts. By June of 1935, the government is getting very nervous and Bennett holds a meeting with the communist leaders of the trek in Ottawa. Bennett wanted to hold the protest there so he could gather up the army and they charge in on the trek on July 1 , 1935 (settle this with violence). Trek is over. Bennett is made to look bad. ALL MALE ACTIVITY. The communist party (unity league) organizes this. 1930’s = depression  protest of unemployed workers “they want worker wagers”. Cities everywhere had boards up with messages that “say they have their own males to supply with jobs, keeping moving” Government: Keynesian policies – aggressive Keynesian approach to put people to work; biggest infrastructure spending in history. Great Depression – Impact on gender roles • Women were forced to work in heavy industrial work, no longer stayed at home to take care of the family • Industrial Revolution: (1820-1840) • Alienation of skilled workers  now that machines replaced human labor, many skilled craftsmen lost their status and skill. They still made good wages after, but nowhere close to what they originally made • Jobs were taken over by workers that had very little skill (operating a machine does not take much effort) o “factory girl” or domestic work • Loss of social aspect: everything was very punctual; there were no more leisure times. Pre-industrial era had much more control over pace & time • Creation of craft unions to protect their trade during the industrialization st • FOUR main changes in 1 I.R. o Small shop factory o Mechanization o New Industries o Development in Staple Industries • Work that used to be done by humans are now replaced by machines • New industries: railways were huge because people needed their products shipped o “Time is Money” = Punctuality; worker on the time of your employer ; takes out temper on breaking the whistle o Discipline; workers were usually new. Worry about control • Industrialization took away the power from craft workers, so that gave rise to craft unions in order to protect crafts workers • Producer ideology Second Industrial Revolution: (1870 -1914)  The development of assembly lines (ford)  Introductory to ELECTRICTY  expanded factory hours; able to work throughout the night  The coming of large corporations become household levels  women did grunt clerical work  Vastly expanded office spaces  manage affairs and workers of large corporations • USA becomes the largest economy and takes off in the 1900s, introduces corporate capitalism with the expansion • Canada also has an economic boom but remains primarily a resource country • Expansion in plant layout • Second industrial revolution introduced electricity  plants went from using windows as a source of lighting to electricity (can work longer hours) o Introduced chemical innovations such as pulp, good for speeding up process of breaking down material • Used a different managerial strategy to control the workers; ex: job ladder (heirarchial positions), piece rates (piece you finish per hour), drive system (i.e. football coach technique, pick on one guy) • Citizens depended on democracy, especially after the rise of capitalism Taylorism and scientific management (Frederick Taylor – roughly around 2 industrial revolution): Conception vs. Execution, where conception is thinking of making something versus execution, the making of it. He also devised time-motion studies: they have a person timing, watching, and filming what workers are doing and then break it down scientifically as a way to motivate and humiliate workers. Its goal was to increase economic efficiency and labor production Status of women: Despite economic boom, and women entering business forces, the views of women did not change. Women worked grunt work in offices (pink collared jobs), and mainly worked in garment industries. Even if women were to participate in labor, they were expected to attend to their “family role” – ex: women were expected to leave labor when they were 16-24 for marriage. Women were often seen as supporters of women in union strikes (cooking meals, cleaning, etc). Knights of Labor wanted to protect women – they allowed women as members and even allowed them to be leaders (Elizabeth Gurley Flynn), but they were still looked down upon by male members • Impact on Women During WWII – women did men’s work. Ex: women working on airplanes  Recognition: recognizes the union and will bargain a collective agreement for the workers. More power when bargaining collectively o Roles & Opportunities – women starts making up a huge part in the labor force; doing heavy industrial work. The government is encouraging this to happen, women were needed to win the war. o Propaganda - Women are dressed up as blue collared workers; masculine image. “Rosie the Riveter” o Persistence of Traditional Values – traditional work remain deeply set; women’s role is at home and their responsibility to their man. What is more masculine that fighting a war? “Support your husband by taking a war job”. Temporary job/ sacrifice; taking the job ‘he’ left behind.  Family Roles – how and where they are brought into the labour force. WHY - Women were only brought into work when labour shortage. WHICH women come in – young women who were not married; domestic work should be coming first; only as labour shortage is serious do they start to hire wives get hired. Mothers are the LAST to be brought in  Work Roles – food processing early in the war. Later In the war, women work in the lighter industry, as you get later into the war women begin to get into heavier industry. Transformation. • Post-War Retrenchment – tradition family roles; most women were pushed out of their job. • New propaganda – go back home, men will now take over the jobs o Pressure and “Reward” – “We won the war, so now you can leave your job and go back home” • 1950s = Conservative Era – a clear division in labor. Men earning the money, women in the home o “Classic Suburban Housewife” • Memories Linger = 1960s – new wave of feminist who want to establish that women can do different types of work. Employers did not complain about women workers meaning that women can handle jobs Samuel Gompers: “Gompers’ Consumerism vs. Producerism” – had a heavy influence in Canada. “Bread & Butter Unionism” – Samuel Gompers focuses on economic issues like better wages and better working conditions through collective bargaining • Samuel Gompers made up a very effective counter against employers unwillingness to raise wages: He said that where low wages = low prices is what defines poverty, if you want a higher standard of living and be a consumer of better goods; higher wages is the key low wages = poverty, high wages = higher standards of living = consumers of good • Samuel Gompers took over Trades and Labor Congress and reorganized it to his liking, but was not well received by the public • Vs. Samuel Gompers – becomes the craft union leaders – becomes the leading voice for a clean craft unionism who controls trades and then gains leverage – pragmatic unionist & posed himself in opposition to the Knights (comparing the Knights to craft unions) – speaks for the average working person in the U.S. - Craft unions continued to grow (not as large of numbers but they did grow) • Founded the American Federation of Labour o Promoted harmony between different craft union American Federation of Labor: Vs. Samuel Gompers – becomes the craft union leaders – becomes the leading voice for a clean craft unionism who controls trades and then gains leverage – pragmatic unionist & posed himself in opposition to the Knights (comparing the Knights to craft unions) – speaks for the average working person in the U.S. - Craft unions continued to grow (not as large of numbers but they did grow) o A.F.L - American Federation of Labour; takes international craft unions under one umbrella; pushes the idea of clean craft unions running the trades; "knights crazy to have different organizations and running these mixed assemblies"; focuses on bread and butter unionism (unions can focus on other things if they want but what will make people loyal is delivering the goods; workers join unions for what they bring to the table) o AFL ordered TLC to throw out all unions sympathetic to industrial unions - 1900-1914 Immigration: • Early 20 century boom: in 1907, immigration hit new heights at roughly 272k and in 1913 it hit its highest population in history at approx. 410k. • Immigrants were able to find work, but it was a very rough transition as many were unskilled workers • Community Support and Ethnic Niches – people turn to create their own community for mutual support, and it was easier to find jobs as a group • Asian immigration (mainly china with some Japan) were extremely exploited and given the most dangerous, unskilled and grunt work. Chinese were seen as expendable ex: make Chinese go in first for mining jobs • Immigrants were seen as job stealers since they were willing to work for less while hurting the economy at the same time • Immigrants were not seen as coming from a democracy background and were to blame for all crime: Chinese = gamblers/ women predators, Italians = heavy drinkers • Radicalization – immigrants live lower standards of living and cannot be changed • Assumptions made about immigrants when they have no met the race before • Mainstream labor movement – organized a movement with a mindset where labor leaders were against immigration. Widespread of hostility/rumors to make police biased against them o Ex: Chinese = gamblers, Italians = drinkers • Mainly wanted only British people, eventually lead to the Chinese Immigration Act • Radical movement – socialist movement that regarded all workers are equal regardless of where they came from • Established an immigration policy  only recruited farmers, farm laborers, and domestic services, although some exceptions were made to businessmen in expansion of sectors • One Big Union 1919: • By the end of the war this was the idea that was starting to catch fire especially in the West • The established part of the Canadian Labour movement clearly disagreed with this, and OBU started right after the war • By May 1919 people began to say that there were serious threats of true labour unrest/revolt • The OBU never really got off the ground  were taken down early on • Another event overtook plans for the OBU – which was the Winnipeg General Strike • Robert. B Russell was founder and leader • Merged with Canadian Labor Congress We Shall Be All: A famous saying devised by the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) captures the way the organization is structured. This was open to all races. Did not break members down by regions, by industries: you are simply a member of that organization. EVERYONE had to be active. Had a membership structure • Organized everybody into the organization into a fist is the only way you will have a chance at fighting • Revolution Syndicalism: one big general strike/goal. This strike hoped to paralyze the system and break it down • IWW was taken down by force later, where headquarters were destroyed and leaders were put to jail/died Chinese Immigration Act: Act implemented in 1923. Banned ALL Chinese immigrations from coming into the country and remained effected until 1948. Provincial governments put pressure on federal government to ban Chinese from coming in Head Tax: (1903) paid $500 to have a head tax certificate as proof that you paid to come to Canada. If you did not have this on you at all times (even children) were arrested Pc 1003 – adopts the Wagner model in Canada. To concede to unions and to give in to the strike wave o Wagner Model – mandatory recognition. Law says if a union is established in a work place, a employer must recognize this. Labor boards will determine if the majority of the worker support the union; if they do; they must recognize/deal the union. Cannot refuse to not bargain. All around unions make deals with employers st nd Victory bonds 1 /2 World War : the public does not spend their money on merchandise good, but rather use their money to purchase a victory bond as a way to help pay for the war. After they had won the war, people will get all the money they spent on victory bonds back. This causes a huge economic boom (?) as large amounts of money were pooled into the economy • Government used propaganda to sell victory bonds – said everyone must fight their part; men  war, women  industrial work, local people  using all money to buy victory bonds to fund war Nine hour movement • Workers demanded a 9 hour a day reduction to 8 hours • Knights of labour largely focused on trying to achieve 8 hours a day for their members • Samuel Gompers advocated for less hours • 9 hour movement; how many hours of work should someone be made to work (use to work as much as your boss would tell you); 9hrs a day 6 days a weeks; start to advocate for this and do rotating strikes; first time labour union challenges the _______ of workers; 9hour movement said if you gave us time off we will be better citizens (help people be better fathers etc..); very radical and conservative approach o views of workers - had to keep them busy ; did not keep them busy they would cause trouble; want to avoid dealing with idol masses (who drink, maybe riot, talk revolution) • Turning Victorianism – education, taking care of yourself, families being cohesive, people having time for self-improvement (you cannot have fathers away from the home for such long periods of time) o early 1870's is when 9hr movement starts to get in motion; start rotation strikes  organized for one huge strike (in Hamilton, then Montreal, then Toronto); 9hr movement was sideswiped by unforeseen events (known as Toronto Printers' Strike) • Workers said they needed time off to be better fathers, citizens, better members of the community Nine Hour Movement – [early 1870s) based out of Hamilton. Employers pushed a nine hour work day on unionised and non-unionized employees. The movement came to its height in May 1872 when a collective force of 1,500 workers demonstrated in Hamilton in a parade-style fashion, which is coined as being the precursor to the traditional holiday of Canada's Labour Day. Although the movement was an overall failure, as it failed to deliver the nine-hour work day to the majority of work forces and industries, this movement made a major mark in labour relations in Canada and indicated that labour had a public presence. Major factor that propelled the development of the Canadian Labour Union. o Infrastructure Spending: spending on infrastructure after WWII to help with jobs, during Keynesian Policies, there was the biggest spending of infrastructure in Canadian history. In the New Deal, liberal active governments launched numerous projects around U.S to build infrastructure and give people jobs The War Measures Act: was a statute of the Parliament of Canada that provided for the declaration of war, invasion, or insurrection, and the types of emergency measures that could thereby be taken. Government can take whatever they want to supply the war. The industrial disputes investigation act (IDI ACT 1907): extended by 1939 to 85% of industrial activity and its main goals were to prevent strikes o Handicapped trade union organizations o Were unfit to deal with disputes dealing with employers refusing to recognize trade unions/ do collective bargaining o Mainly contributed to delay o Timing of strike was crucial and delays could affect unions organizational momentum and give employers chance to prepare for counter-strike methods o Disregarded different types of industrial dispute  different industry = different concerns in recognition and collective bargaining “ID Act is unsuitable to deal with uprise” CLC (Canadian Labor Congress): merged with AFL and CIO to form CLC in 1956 PC 1003/Wagner Model: enacted in February 1944 turning point in the development of the industrial relation system. o Guaranteed rights to organize and bargain collectively; protection of unfair labor practices; gained equal representation with employers on labor boards o Defined unfair labor practices o Outlawed company unions; established a administrative tribunal rather than court to enforce order o Incorporates basic concepts of the Wagner model  Unlike the American model, the parties were not entitled to strike or lockout during the term of agreement o Recognition strikes were no longer needed to initiate bargaining o Cons: did not include workers that did not engage in sectors outside of the war production, it caused division and segmented the Canadian working class Wagner Model • 1935; grew out of mass strikes and sit downs in the US and legalized the right to unionize and bargain collectively o Management reserves the right to make decisions in all areas that are fundamental to the control of the labor process & enforces grievance o Cannot start strikes. o In 1950s Canada began to lean towards Wagner model, which shaped Canadian unionism in 1970s o UAW (united auto workers) contributed most to the Canadian Wagner model; 1945 Ford Strike o Outlined during the war o “no strike pledge” – part of the price of the Canadian Wagner model o Wagner Model – mandatory recognition. Law says if a union is established in a work place, a union must recognize this. Labor boards will determine if the majority of the worker support the union; if they do; they must recognize/deal the union. Cannot Wild Cats: Wildcat Strike – when workers go on strike without the permission of their trade union officials. Spontaneous or unannounced illegal industrial action by a section of employees, without following the proper procedure for striking such as majority approval through a union ballot. In such situations, the employer usually has the legal right to fire the offending workers and to sue the union for damages. Also called outlaw strike or quickie strike. Ex: 1950s strike when Ford decided to fire 20 people even though they were under the contract and should not sign if they don’t follow it  instigating a wild cat Alienation / Deskilling – Deskilling is the process by which skilled labor within an industry or economy is eliminated by the introduction of technologies operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers. This results in cost savings due to lower investment in human capital, and reduces barriers to entry, weakening the bargaining power of the human capital. It is criticized for decreasing quality, demeaning labor and undermining community. Individuals lose the integrated skills and comprehensive knowledge of the crafts persons. Alienation in first IR and deskilling not complete till after second IR. Connection to Work & Product; no attachment to that product due to repetition of that one step in the product. Loss of aspect at work, could not control the time in the day or control the rhythm of production Alienation – workers loses status, and are left to find other jobs Rank and File unionism & top down • UAW suppressed rank and file unionism • Members of rank and file were predominately Ukrainian • Top down union was still in place, where rank and file members and leaders were not different * ? • Rank a file: union leaders took responsibility for disciplining members Quiet Revolution • It wanted to render the workplace more humane and make provisions for the aged, unemployed, sick, as well as for a highly skilled professional labor force • Intervened in social, economy, health, education system • Late 1960-1970s, disappointed in the results of the Quiet Revolution – did not change anything. • Left within union central went under a lot of radicalization and increase in numerical strength • President Marcel Pepin (supported left) had huge influence, so the right side of the union central was no match for the left • The Quiet Revolution – 1960s – government lead revolution; massive effort to modernize Quebec society. To take education and healthcare out of the church hands and to build a more liberal province.  education sector explodes, new teachers are trained; enormous change after education is taken out of the church’s hands o Jean Lesage; becomes the premier, and launches the quiet revolution; o Modernism & Liberalism = Trudeau – Trudeau advocated that Quebec has to prove itself that it was up to the test to modernize; wanted to be seen as a liberal project. o Vs. Nationalism & Leftism – 1960’s; nationalism was right wing and dominated by churches. Says Quebec has no power, no money, big employers; French- Canada are simply workers. Huge wage of leftism/socialism rises in the late 60’s and goes into the catholic unions.  go from religious conservative religious and become radical; went from working against organized labor into the upsurge of radicalism in 60’s. Huge uprise in unions and are now nationalism instead of leftism. • Green paper: “Green Paper on Pay Equity” – 1985, deals with the issue outside of the OPSEU(Ontario public service employees union)- in the rest of the public sector and in private sector. Bargain wage increases based on pay equity (?) Repressed by force by the union, significance: shows the communist were trying to make trouble, shows level of unemployment, scared the government a lot, repression worked Overproduction/underproduction caused the depression Top down versus rank and file unionism: top down organizing focuses on persuading management through salesmanship or pressure tactics. The salesmanship may include offering access to resources such as a well-trained and skilled supply of labour or access to union cartels. Pressure tactics may include picketing with the intention of embarrassing management or disrupting business as well as assisting the government in investigating employment law and labor law violations. Rank and file unionism is the people involved in the union, usually the majority. Toronto Printers Strike (1872) – International Typographical Union represented printers and was established much before the new industrial age. The union maintained strength from the beginning and were able to maintain control over shop, production and hiring. ITU was against non-unionised shops, and in elections of 1884 asked employees to not vote for candidates advertised in newspapers that had non-unionised shops. The strike was the culmination of Canada’s first mass workers movement. In late 1871, many of the workers in Ontario and Québec were inspired by the nine-hour movement in England. Every Toronto newspaper except the Leader which declared that “the shortening of the hours of labour is one of the most commendable movements inaugurated by working men.” George Brown (founder and leader of Toronto Globe)was against unions, said they were conspiracies to constrain the market and he caused huge strikes. April 15 1872 caused the largest protest in Canada, USA joins and causes a huge effect and now is known as “Labor Day” Toronto Printer’s Strike - George Brown Again (Main players in Liberal Party – believing in free markets all the way – The Toronto Globe which advocates for free markets) – he says unions are conspiracies to restrain the market controlling the supply of labour and if they get upset they can withdraw (says unions are a terrible thing) – vocal opponent of unions - Huge Strike Started in March (one of top 3 most important strikes) - April 15 1872 the union held a huge rally in support of the union – largest labour protest at this time in history – drew in people from all over Ontario and even some from Quebec - Rally was the start of labour & helped to create “Labour Day” because of the power of the march - George Brown was impressed in a bad way by the march – he freaked out & starts to talk about outside agitators trying to overthrow Canada and went to the police and had the leaders of the strike arrested and were charged with criminal conspiracy restraint of trade - The fundamental question of whether unions were actually legal and if people could be arrested for engaging in union activity - Repression - Criminal conspiracy in the restraint of trade (what they were charged with when arrested) - Coopers International Union – The Coppers International Union (C.I.U.) was created in 1870 to avoid the fate of victims of the new age. Small but powerful union however when the depression of the 1870’s came, their decline came very rapidly. Coopering was a very classic artisanal mold and eventually machinery took over. Without the unionized workers, companies realised they had no control over the factories which led to the complete abolishment of the trade. This shows that unions can be very powerful however the amount of time they have been established for is significant still. Liberalism – Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, and free trade. Liberals dominated throughout 1872-96 Winnipeg Strike – May 19, 1919. One of the most influential strikes of Canadian history organized by the Strike Committee . Across Western Canada convened in Calgary to form a branch of the "One Big Union", otherwise known as "The Great Fist", with the intention of earning rights for Canadian workers through a series of strikes. A drastic amount of men and women- some unionised and some not were all of different trades of skill and from different ethnic backgrounds shar
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