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Labour Studies 1A03 Course lecture notes.docx

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Labour Studies
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Rita Cossa

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Labour studies lecture 2 sept, 16, 2010 Settlers and wage labour -Ideal of independent pioneer -Getting started -Mixture of jobs • Gender division -View & role of paid work • Transition stage • Organizing?  Labour historians found that pioneer life was not so ideal and not so frequent. They particularly found that reaching that ideal was a lot harder than expected, start up costs were very high. Clearing land that you could just farm was very expensive. If it wasn’t clear than it wouldn’t be produced in living on. You need start up money for that stuff. Most people did not have the start up costs to purchase this land, resulting to people using wage labour. Alot of the families and different members of the family had to do different types of work, there was gender division. Women would take in different types of work such as domestic work; the men would juggle a wide range of jobs such as the timber jobs creating an extra income. Men would work very hard to the point of exhaustion, men often worked for the local merchant ex. Local mill. The merchant therefore had a lot of power and was the one who held your debts. Men would take long trips to the states to earn extra money. Turns out a lot of labour history in this early period, wage work has a deep sense of not being a good place to be in. Wage was something you were doing to make ends meat and eventually you would not need to do wage work and get out of it. If you were doing it ear after year after year means you are doing something wrong and not making that much money, you should be out of that phase and not doing wage work for many years. Very rarely did workers identify themselves as workers, they identified themselves as farmers. Craft workers -Early craft production -Roles in the shop  Master  Journeymen  Apprentices  Paternalism -Respectability -Worker’s control -Transportation  They are seen as the people who made everyone’s life better due to the skills that they had and were the people that were looked up to. The vast majority of things were made local and the craft workers such as tailors, blacksmith. These are people that the community had looked to. Printers were not just people who brought press they brought literacy and were looked to by the community. Done on a very small scale and did not have many workers, a big shop would have 10 people and most did not even have that. Master craftsman and master craft workers were mostly men. The master craftsman would coordinate production and had the most skill. Distribution was very often done by the family and a lot of the business would be tied to the community.  Just below the master craftsman were the journeymen, implied in the title often moved around the clock, they did have skill, just not as much.  Apprentices were often very young. It was part of the master craftsman job to help the apprentices. The role was a relationship and the master craftsman played the father role (father to apprentice).  In respectability they had to carry themselves and give a fair price. Workers control particularly in a sense is control over the trade.And to make they would get together and agree on prices, if you truly control on trade everyone would get together and make prices.And if you did not want to pay the union rate, you would have to go to another town and buy your product.  Communities were very isolated; transportation would make it easier to transport goods from the outside. There are two improvements of shipping (1) canals (2) railways/ railroads. Craft shops are competing for goods coming from places outside of town. They also have the opportunity to send their goods away. This puts a lot of pressure on the communities. Labour Studies lecture 3 Resisting Industrialization sept, 20, 2010 Industrial Revolution -Background – Political & Social -Transportation Innovations -“Paths to Industrialization” • Small shop to factory (putting out system) (5 steps) • New Industries • Developing in Staple Industries (finishing) -New working world in factories • New roles (Deskilling) • New rules (foreman) • New workers (semi-skilled machine ops.)  Canada in its early years was not exactly taking off. From 1873-1896 most of the world lived through the long depression. Transportation and innovation that allow much greater imports, now those small shops have to compete, this is happening through increased shipping, railroads. 5 steps - (1) The need for more supplies - (2) Expending and influence of the merchants (brought in material from the outside) merchants become more influential - (3) Merchants start to take more control over production (taking control of the supplies) * Putting out system, you make the stuff and then sell it - (4) The rate of production continues to speed up - (5) Moving out of the shop, you need more space because you got more merchants and more products New Industries -In the first industrial revolution, by new industries people become able to make new things ex. Steel, there are new industries such as the rail road -People needed more transit to transport many goods Staple Industries -Small amounts of change in staple industries for Canada in the industrial revolution -Timber kept growing as a trade same with fishing New working World in factories roles/rules/workers -New machines made more workers -Highly skilled workers such as craft workers were in high demand (high skilled jobs) *Most part not all about new technology, but new technique from workers -In factories new set of rules such as work patterns -In a factory time is money; the boss wants maximum value for the money. The factory now has a whistle when people should get back to work -Discipline was extreme and workers can be fined for laughing or just not being productive -The foreman is not a master crafts man, and are there for enforcement and discipline. They are there to enforce people. Labour studies lecture 4 sept, 23, 2010 Strategies for working class families -Broad social changes -Life of hardships o Breadwinner’s wage -Victorian ideology -Getting by o Role in family o Stretching resources -Lifecycle -“Last resorts” Broad social changes -There are still a lot of cases of a lot of training of apprentices -New groups of workers such as semi-skilled machine. Most of the skill is in managing the machine -Working class women 18-24 can be factory workers and do a lot of the unskilled work (majority are young) Separation of spheres- Separation between domestic sphere and the public sphere Life of hardships -The getting by the day to day level was a struggle Breadwinner’s wage- Is a wage sufficient to support the rest of the family -Vast majority of workers did not make the breadwinner’s wage -Means families need to strategize how to keep going -The economy was very unstable -What worried many families is if the father got injured, the family would have little or no chance of getting by -Roles would need to be replaced Victorian ideology -God helps those who help themselves -You took care of yourself -States and government spent little money of relief funds -Being in isolated communities people were worried -Did believe in charity and did give out some suppoty Workhouse test- If you wanted to get some support you needed to pass the workhouse test. You need to do a job that you were given, the job was very simple and a lot of people knew this was pointless. Even for charity you had to show some work effort Getting by -Everybody from a very young age was expected to contribute to the family -Strong -The role of women, the young girls were often the ones who felt it the most if the mother got sick. They would take on the house -At this time 30% of household would have a domestic servant -Adult women biggest role was to stretch resources, such as sewing and taking on extra work -Women would save money and stretching on the food they had such as having a garden -Having a garden was essential for survival -Keeping animals such as a cow, goat or chicken were a big part of survival strategy Lifecycle -People tended to be most vulnerable at the beginning and ending of this cycle -How people strategized to survive -Often when families were young they lived together -Old working class saying, that you weren’t really working class unless you slept beside your brothers feet Last resorts -If you could not make ends meet there were some last resorts -Going to war was one -Orphanage -Most kids expected their parents to come back -Kids were focused for their parents to come back -Jail was also a last resort -Working class people who could not get by would commit some petty crime and at least has some roof over their head -Orphanage were run by religious churches or helped out by charity Labour studies lecture 5 Resisting Industrialization Craft Union Basic questions Social Question- How do we maximize the benefits of industrial revolution for society? -Industrialization concentrates power -Industrial revolution is creating huge factories, big cities -The industrial revolution created a very tuff life -The basic ideologies and thinking of these questions have not changed -Conditions have changed Mitigating the impacts -The weak dragged everyone else down -People’s life’s change fundamentally such as leaving home and losing land Liberalism - Is one of the basic ideologies used to describe this -Believe in individual freedom such as abortion -The liberal answer to this, is let the market be free, with as much freedom as possible -Do nothing or do as little as possible - In Canada was the dominant ideology in Canada when it came to these situations was liberal -“Let people who are struggling get up themselves, do not let government interfere” -Was against government interference -Canadians for the most part at this time were not very liberal, they believed in social order -Regarding economic situations many people were liberal Orientation of craft unions Who, strength -Represented trade workers those with a lot of skill -Naturally meant that these workers were mostly white men and older -Strength was having some leverage importance (having a skill that the boss needs) -The role of skill was much greater, “Without our skill and knowhow nothing will be made” -Craft unions to a very large extent were exclusive, limited amount of trade workers -Were not open to people who did not have that skill, had exclusive ideas of gender “protecting their manhood” Workplace & beyond -Unions understood they had to be active in the workplace -Classic example of a craft union were shoe makers, very sophisticated organization -Shoemakers are also one of the industries that get kicked the hardest by industrial revolution -Shoemakers had to compete for their product, transportation of shoes became available -Also classic example because their cause had many big strikes and efforts to shut down the business -Shoemakers even though they are extremely organized, they changed in big ways of how shoes are made - They are an example of a trade that get changed so easily that they cannot respond -Very often craft unions are able to successfully organize -In other words there are a lot of trades where the unions win -The unions take control of the workplace -The idea that craft unions would made fair prices Labour studies lecture 6 Birth of the Labour Movement Growth within trade -Different trades begin to move around a lot of equipment -Unions followed you wherever you go -Canada internationalised much later than the U.S International union – Unions that are based in the U.S but have assemblies in Canada International unionism -American based unions come into -Canadians didn’t have any say in the international union rules LocalAssemblies -Would support local strikes in unions -Boycotts were most popular -Local voice and the supporting of strikes Nine hour pioneers Nine hour movement- was the idea of limits on hours of work. -Alot of people thought it would lead to greater change. Most worked 6 to 6 ½ days. -One of the most important in Canada -Put limits on hours of work -Keep the workers busy -Time is needed for workers to be active in the community, engage in politics and be good fathers. -Need limits on the hours of work so workers can be at home to contribute to the community and family -They started to start rotating strikes in Montreal, Kingston, Hamilton and Toronto Toronto printer strikes (1872) -In top three most important strikes -Toronto printers wanted to get the more hour days in their contract -Is a strike about the 9 hour day and ends up having really wide results -Early point the strike is very strong. At a point the strike becomes very political because of who the main leader of the employers is. George Brown -George Brown was a leader of the liberal party and publisher of the Toronto globe. -Believes in strict liberal things such as free market -The strike draws in a lot of support. April, 15 there is a major demonstration of support. There are supporters of the 9 hour days and a protest of 10- 12 thousand -One side effect of this is that a lot ofAmerican unionists were a part of this -Labour day started in Toronto from the printers strike -George Brown is not impressed and goes to the police and gets the leaders of the strike arrested, for criminal conspiracy in the strength of trade John A Mcdonald -Prime minister at the time and a brilliant politician -Out smarted George Brown and they were rivals Trade Union Act (1872) -He enacts the trade union act and it what it does is legalize unions -And it -Was aware that employers were not going to be happy about this, also puts limits on what unions can and cannot do -Unions become ecstatic that they are now legal -Leads to this whole big political National labour centrals -A voice of labour an a way to coordinate equity on a national scale Canadian labour union- Was born as the worst depression yet in (1873) Trades and labour congress (1886)- To form the Canadian congress. Tried to organize politically and with unions, trade policy was a big one and protection with high tariffs so Canadians can compete. -Big issue was based on tariffs Lobbying & Political labour -The movement was not huge yet ands was not specifically telling everybody what to do -Individual leadership really matters -Macdonald was a very practical politician and was willing to do business with people -Alot of liberals were open to working with labour -Start to see the labour movement making a difference Factory Acts -First laws governing factories, first acts limiting basic standards -Things life safety regulations, child labour and minimal age to work in factories -If a child was caught working in a factory, punishment was on parents and not the factory itself Labour studies lecture 7-8 October, 4, 2010 Knights of labour -1885 explosion in membership, never been this kind of explosion in the number of members -Flames out in 1886 into 1887 -At some point in the 1880’s 3 million people had joined the organization -Growing so fast that the organization couldn’t keep up, in Canada there was 100,000 people that joined at some point Membership and structure -Were open in a much more broad base of way, open to wide range of workers, were not like craft unions -Appealed to farmers as well -The knights were flexible, and the knights would let them form assemblies whichever way they wanted -Made the knights allow a lot of workers join the knight’s assembly and made work available, were much more open in his regard, and allowed them to grow Ideas and values Nobility of toll -There idea was not controlling a trade, but representing the workers and made them an idealistic and moralistic organization -The knights wanted to insist that work had an inherit value, said there is an inherit value to work -The people who create value or the workers, and that’s why the knights were open to workers Brotherhood -The knights wanted to bring back a sense of brotherhood -Made great efforts to unionize workers Moral values Temperance- Is the consumption of alcohol -The knights would say this is happening due to society, most of the people who campaign are people who try to control workers -The knights said workers are the ones who are the most discipline Family- Alot of concern of family values and the decay of family -The knights come along and say these things need to be understood, and families tarred apart by industrialization, if you want a better family life you have to reform the system and the economy Protection of women- The knights were very big on protecting women, there example of this was the approach to the breadwinner’s wage Breadwinner’s wage- The idea of protecting women from working in factories and let the men work and support higher wages, then women would never have to work -The knights were committed to broad organizing -In some cases most organizations were mainly women and organized for the women by the women Broad social reform- See their strength, the other stuff outside the workplace was big, they wanted to get people talking about the directions the society is having -The knight’s leader said let’s take on the system -Conservative people said let’s focus on the way society is heading and what we can do Methods -The knights were very big on education Palladium of labour -Had a great influence and ideas Brainworkers- Were people who worked with their brains, particularly worked in the press Phillips Thompson- Influential writer Symbols & Rituals -Was very common in 1900’s to communicate with symbols and rituals -Often found symbols that captured their ideas -The Knights liked the triangle because it showed society had different groups 3 sides Production, Consumption, and Exchange Politics/ Strikes Politics -Regarding politics most knights’leaders thought politicians would divide the movement -On the other hand people said we got voters, and lets use that power and use that strength -in some places the knights were electing Strikes -For the most part the leadership of the knights focused on the beyond -They said if we need to take on the broader system Vs. Arbitration -Believed and tried to advocate arbitration - In reality a lot of people did not believe in it (the workers) -Strikes got the knights on the map and a lot of attention -In 1886 the knights had divisions, and took a toll on their success Haymarket (1886) -In Chicago 1886 the strikes are getting larger -In support of these strike are rallies, may, 4 , 1886 big rally, police charged the crowd and bombs go off, in the end 10 people are dead others died later of injuries, the ends up creating a very big trauma Quebec -Dominant institution in the 1880s and 1890s -Hated the knights because of its labour force -Began to like them in the late 1890s Interpretation -The interpretation was very hostile -The movement culture of the knights is this idea of pushing people to ask broad questions -Pushes people to challenge society in a fundamental way -In areas they inspired Quebec and the U.S. south -Knights remain a very controversial Workers & The 2 Industrial Revolution Economic and Social Transformations 18960 - 1914 Broad Overview -Ford become the richest man in the world with his thought of production -Canada was dependent of resources -Essential to Canada is mining, huge demand with mining resources and Canada has them -Alot of this growth in manufacturing is a branch plant economy Technological & Physical changes -Markets continue to open up -The more transportation that comes along the more competition is involved -Canada builds more railways -People working for companies in their lab coats -Engineering as a field takes of like crazy -The nature of business begins to change -America is seen as a place of explosive intellectual activity in finding new ways to make things Managerial Strategies -Canada becomes one of the biggest producers of paper -Schools of management did not exist and now they come along -Peace rates, women got paid by how much they can produce Labour studies lecture 9 Taylorism -Created a lot of the language to explain what was happening -Conception (how something is made, world of business, engineers) vs. execution (grunt root labour force) nd -Observed the 2 industrial revolution -Break down every act of a worker in a work place -Humiliate the workers, make them feel constantly watched 1) Efficiency and 2) Control -The motion studies are popular Basic Question -Spreading benefits = Social Question -How can you have meaningful democracy when you have these private entities - Who should benefit? Conditions -Working conditions were very demanding -The conditions that were producing the wealth were terrible -Henry George articulate in this book, Progress and Poverty, which factories were producing a lot, but they were also generating poverty because of the conditions of the workers Dislocation & Frustration -People get shifted around often (from their work, or their land), peoples lives are changed because of industrialization -Canadians were concerned with providing benefits while development still took place (this made them slower than other countries) Populism -Populist movements driven by people who felt threatened by change and felt that political parties did not represent them Progressivism -Idea that have to deal with these changes by regulating them through the state -Extending democracy (decoding what democratically elected governments can do) -E.x. street light installation health issues -Concerned that corporation were to have more power and would be too dominant 3 points why progression worked 1)Expand democracy and grow government 2)Popular against the middle class professions 3)Regulation ended up creating muc more businesss, stabilized economy Social reform -In Canada you do get a social reform movement Working Women -Alot of jobs created for women -Women are still basically confined to the same role that took hold of the first industrial revolution -Still have domestic responsibilities, and take care of the home -Unions are seen as men organization, where men smoke cigars and talk business -The emergence of the new type of work, a lot more paper work and a lot more corporations -Paper work was done by women -This type of work is not glamorous work, machines do work and highly routine, becomes female dominated -Job ghetto, describes that an area of a party of a city where you don’t want to be, because they pay is generally poor - Is also ghetto because the area has workers who are stigmatized -In some way it’s a ghetto because its hard to get out of Labour studies Lecture 10 Craft Union & the AFL Mixed Impacts of Boom th -Early 20 century -More jobs more workers; a lot of these workers are feeling pressure -The labour movement gets larger -International. American based craft unions are driving the growth Gomerism -Samuel Gompers is the president of theAmerican federation of labour -Becomes dominant figure of Canadian labour -Became president of AFL 1886, was 28 years old -TheAFL becomes the most influence in labour -Was committed to the idea of craft unions, and you cannot have meaningful strength unless you have leverage on the job Who = Strength -If you could be replaced, then you should be replaced Bread & Butter Unionism- you used your leverage in the workplace and you use that to get a better deal -Was very committed to the idea of business unionism If we’re going to take on these large corporations, we have to address them upon their terms -For Gompers the most important thing about this was the contract, if its all a day to day struggle, then its not going to work in the longer term -Was committed to hiring people who are good in their field and hire them professionally. Beyond the workplace -In other words if you don’t have that power, who is going to listen to you if you don’t have that meaningful leverage -No dual unions, no two unions of trade -If you are a serious union, you speak for each trade Berlin 1902 -Berlin is Kitchener, Ontario, used to be called Berlin -In 1902 that was trade of congress had its convention -Significant because Samuel Gompers, gets more interested in Canada asAFL grows -Does not like laid back and profession workforce -Still had independent unionism in Quebec -He didn’t like what he saw and how they were not focused on business unionism -Does not want unions in Canada to be voices of the trade -In 1902, he makes his movement and essentially takes over trades and labour -John Flent becomes new president -Gompers now effectively controls the labour -TLC (Trades and labour Congress) does not like this and creates many problems -It also creates many strengths, a lot of Canadian unions liked working withAmerican unions, and experienced organizers and if Canadians wanted to move to the United States a lot of those unions were there (mobility) -There is no other country whose labour movement is institutionally connected to somewhere else -Gompers was not a micro manager, he never sat there and told people what to do Pressure on Craft Unions -You get this continuing struggle, alot of trades are feeling pressure Industrial Unionism Industrial unions – are different than craft, in particular are different in terms of who they want represent, and want to represent everyone in one industry and workers, skilled, unskilled does not matter -Industrial unions say strength come in numbers, does not come in skill getting replaced -Lets try skill in numbers, industrial look at those really big plants, and say if you organized everybody in the plant and everyone in that industry you can have a lot of people in those unions -Industrial unions are also represented as Mass Unions -At this time industrial unions were supported by socialists -Is not a comparably socialists idea, at the time it was socialists who pushed it -We want a union that represents the masses th -Did not get that far, in the 20 century were a minority -Were found in the mining industry Labour studies lecture 11 Immigrant Labour Experience & Role of Immigrant Workers -Role of thmigrant Workers -Late 19 Century o Disappointments -Early 20 Century Boom Starting points -Immigration was one of the main policy minorities -Was seen by every politician that every country had to do -Was the basic fact that attracting immigrants was central to many goals that the country had -Settling land was a big factor for attracting immigrants -Another one that was essential was developing industry -This is an obvious need you need more workers for more labour -Expanding the economy is another, need a larger population for a larger economy -Aparticular big part of this was building up infrastructure -Connecting the country, and the whole area of trans Canada railway Role of Immigrant workers -They settle, they work, and provide consumerists and the idea of who is going to buy this stuff, you needed a bigger market and more people to purchase these products -You build up the infrastructure, provide consumer markets and the economy will hopefully grow -Canada actively recruited people to come to Canada th Late 19 century -It did not go very well, a lot of disappointment, low economy, not good development -Abig part of that to was that the government was not bringing in the immigrants that it wanted -Canada attracts people on how good they are doing -People came to Canada and left based on them not doing well -Was not happy with who it had attracted, tried to attract the Britsh Early 20 Century Boom -Things have changed the economy had picked up Labour studies Late 19 Century L12 Oct, 21, 2010 Varied Experiences -In British Columbia the native population was quite large -Natives were working in the resource industries -Stereotypes of natives ability to work in big industries Skilled workers -Most of these skilled workers were British or north-western Europea
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