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Quick Study Notes (Condensed, all content) - Midterm 1 - LifeSci 2N03

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McMaster University
Life Sciences
Danny M.Pincivero

Quicknotes LIFESCI 2N03 Condensed Notes Lecture 1: Introduction  Kinesiology – the science of human movement; assessment of human movement and performance, its rehabilitation and management to maintain, rehabilitate or enhance movement and performance  Physiology – the science of the functions of the living organism and its components and the chemical and physical processes involved  Nutrition – taking in and utilization of food substances by which growth repair and maintenance activities in the body as a whole or in any of its parts are accomplished; ingestion, digestion, absorption and metabolism (assimilation)  Food – material that provides the nutritive requirements of an organism to maintain growth and physical well being  Importance of Nutrition – can prevent disease o Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency – scurvy (bones become soft; cured by citrus fruits, vitamin C), goiter, rickets o Diseases influenced by nutrition – chronic diseases such as heart disease (due to trans fats, saturated fats, cholesterol levels) o Disease in which nutrition plays a role (indirect) – osteoarthritis, osteoporosis (bones, joints; many factors)  Influences on eating 1. Physiological hunger – hormones (insulin, leptin) 2. Sensory stimulation – flavor (taste, smell); texture (crisp, chewy, smooth; fat often added for texture; titanium dioxide to skim milk) 3. Personal preference 4. Habits – eg/ 3 meals/day 5. Ethnic heritage – cultural beliefs and traditions; religion 6. Social interactions 7. Availability, convenience and economy – eg/ sale 8. Positive and negative associations – advertising 9. Emotions – food cravings; B-endorphins; pica (Craving non-food items; occurs in pregnant women) 10. Values 11. Body weight and image 12. Nutrition and health benefits  Sports supplements 1. Sports drinks – liquid carbohydrates and fluid; enhance exercise performance and recovery 2. Sports foods – nutrient dense; leverages functional food proposition; whey and soy 3. Sports supplements – build muscle tissue, increase energy stores, utilization, decrease body fat; soy protein, wheat protein, creatine, L-carnitine (burn fat), amino acids  Nutrient – substance in food that body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues or regulate physiological/physical functions o Essential nutrient – must be ingested because body cannot make (adequate amounts of) it o Macronutrient o Micronutrient  Organic food – food gown without use of fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics etc o Must meet standards of the Canadian Organic Products Regulations in crop production, livestock production, processing, cleaners, disinfectants, sanitizers, health care products  may not be truthful  Antioxidant – a nutrient that combines with or neutralizes free radicals; prevents oxidative damage to the cell o Eg/ Superoxide anion (caused by free radical (extra election) O2) – highly reactive (binds DNA, membrane RBC); disrupts normal structure and physiological function of cells  Results in immune response; accumulation causes premature aging, cancers  Exercise can produce O 2- o Enzymes combat free radicals o Effective antioxidants – vitamin C, E, selenium by acting as an electron acceptor  Phytochemicals – plant chemicals; fight bacteria, viruses, UV light and free radicals; cancer prevention (free radical and hormone neutralizing), lower LDL cholesterol Macronutrients 1. Carbohydrates a. Purpose – supplied energy to cells b. Storage – liver and skeletal muscle (upper storage capacity) c. Food Sources – simple or complex CHO d. Problems/Diseases – diabetes mellitus (inability to regulate circulated glucose in blood) 2. Lipids – fats, oils, cholesterol, phospholipids a. Purpose i. Building block of phospholipids and glycolipids; ii. Protein modification by attaching to fatty acids (lipoproteins; transport fatty acids through body) iii. Fuel – store 2x more energy than CHO and protein; some cells cannot use lipids as energy; no upper limit iv. Derivatives serve as hormones and intracellular messengers b. Storage i. WAT – white adipose tissue; under skin, skeletal muscle; can better utilize ii. BAT – brown adipose tissue; healthy fat storage c. Food Sources – meat, dairy products, coconuts, olives avocado d. Problems/Diseases – obesity, CHD (coronary heart disease), CAD (coronary artery disease) 3. Proteins a. Purpose – structure, energy b. Storage – every tissue c. Food Sources – meat, fish, dairy products, grains, legumes, vegetables 1 Quicknotes LIFESCI 2N03 i. High quality protein (provides essential amino acids), low quality protein d. Problems/Diseases i. Kwashiorkor – lack of dietary protein; fat deposition into liver, swelling; poor countries ii. Marasmus – muscle wasting, fat depletion iii. Heart disease (increased fat), cancers (colon, kidney, breast, prostate), osteoporosis (increased Ca++ excretion; reduced calcium absorption)  caused by excess protein e. Non-protein nitrogenous compounds – composed of amino acids; not considered protein i. Glutathione – antioxidant; works with vitamin C and E ii. Carnitine – helps break up fat molecules iii. Carnosine – dipeptide antioxidant iv. Creatine – sports supplement; energetic boost for high intensity exercise v. Choline – structure of cell membranes Micronutrient 1. Vitamins – organic compounds; contain carbon, hydrogen, other atoms (nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous); no energy (calories) a. Function i. Energy extraction ii. Calcium balance iii. Blood clotting b. Groups i. Water Soluble – B vitamins (8) and vitamin C; easily absorbed and circulated; upper limit; kidney filters blood and filters water soluble vitamins ii. Fat Soluble – A, D, E, K 2. Minerals – inorganic nutrient needed for growth and regulation of normal physiology; 16 minerals a. Macro minerals – major minerals required in the diet in largeramounts; Na, K, Cl, Ca, P, Mg, S b. Trace minerals – required in small amounts; Fe, Zn, Cu, Mo, Mn, Se, I, Fl 3. Water Energy  Energy – ability to cause change in, or perform work, heat and/or mass o Mechanical – moving physical objects; ions through membranes o Electrical – moving charges (electrons); eg/ neurons; o Thermal – increasing temperature (randomness); increase kinetic energy o Chemical – binding/unbinding of chemical bonds; dissociation energy of macronutrients o Nuclear – binding/unbinding nucleons; protons, neutrons  Calorie – amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water bC 1˚ o 1000 calories = 1kcalorie = 1 Calorie  Energy Density – amount of energy in food source relative to its mass; macronutrients o Food energy stored in chemical bonds  Nutrient Density – amount of nutrients in a food source relative to its energy content; macro and micronutrients  Energy Balance Equation – EIN E OUT+ ESTORED o E OUT= metabolic combustion o E STORED macronutrients stored  Energy macronutrients provide o Carbohydrates = 4kcal/gram  Carbs come in the form of starch, sugars and fibers – cannot absorb fibers (do not account for fiber in energy calculation) o Protein = 4kcal/gram o Lipids (fats) = 9kcal/gram Dietary Reference Intake  Standards for energy nutrients, dietary components, physical activity  Recommendation’s apply to healthy people; may be different specific groups  Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) – average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the need of half of the people in a particular category o Used to establish the RDA  Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) – average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97-98% of people in a particular category o Eg/ Protein intake for woman (age 19) = 46g/day (10-35% of total macronutrients (from AMDR)) o Absolute – RDA does not consider body mass o Relative – more correctly expressed RDA  Eg/ 0.8g/kg/day of protein  Adequate Intake (AI) – recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient; based on observations and estimates from experiments o Used when RDA not established o Eg/ Calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, fluoride o Eg/ Vitamin K for male (age 15) = 75µg  Blood clotting factor synthesis, bone protein formation  Sources – liver, green leafy vegetables, cabbage  Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) – highest average daily intake level that is not likely to have adverse effects on the health of most people; consumption above UL not safe o Eg/ Vitamin C – antioxidant, promotes iron adsorption, amino acid metabolism 2 Quicknotes LIFESCI 2N03  UL for woman (age 55) = 2000 mg/day  Toxicity (over consumption) – nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, hemolytic anemia (from damage to RBCs)  Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) – average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance (EIN E Out); no upper limit ofOUT o Based on age, gender, weight, height, level or physical activity  Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) – describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient; expressed as ranges (percentage of total energy); upper and lower boundary o Carbohydrate – 45-65% o Fat – 20-35% o Protein – 10-35% Nutrition Assessment – Individual Level  Malnutrition occurs with deficiency or excess over time  Symptoms of malnutrition – diarrhea, skin rashes, fatigue, other  Creating “total picture” of individual o Historical information – health status; diet history (intake over several days, portion sizes, computer analysis) o Anthropometric measurements – height and weight (track to identify trends; ratio is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease); physical examinations o Laboratory tests – fasting blood glucose; chylomicron, VLDL and LDL (lipoproteins; bad cholesterol; can indicate cardiovascular disease); HDL (high density lipoproteins; ability to absorb excess amounts of cholesterol) Lecture 2: Basics of a Healthy Diet  Adequate Diet – diet provides enough energy, nutrients and fiber to maintain a persons health  Moderation – eating the “right” amount of food to maintain a healthy weight and to optimize body’s metabolic processesINE = OUT  Balanced Diet – diet contains combinations of foods that provide the proper balance of nutrients  Variety – eating many different foods each day Canada’s Food Guide (CFG for the purpose of the)e notes  Designed to reduce risk of chronic disease and obesity through healthy eating  3 age categories for children; 6 age/gender categories for adults  Groups o Vegetable and fruit o Grain products o Milk and alternatives o Meat and alternatives Nutrition Labels  Serving size – CFG serving size may not equal serving size on food label  Calorie Count  Percent Daily Values – amount of nutrients provided in a serving of food; uses recommended daily intake (RDI; most vitamins and minerals) and Reference Standards Food Groups 1. Breads and cereals – wheat, rice, maize, oats, barley, rye o Provides starch and dietary fiber (70-77% of the grain); protein (6-15% of the grain; glu(wheat and r; oryzenin(ric)) a. Wheat  Covers more of the earths surface than any other crop  Grain – provides CHO, fibre, B-vitamins  Wheat plant – endosperm, germ, bran, husk  Husk (chaff) – inedible; outer layer  Bran – protective coating around kernel; rich in nutrients and fiber  Endosperm – mostly starch and some protein  Germ – seed that grows within wheat plant; especially rich in vitamins and minerals to support new life  Whole grain – made from entire grain (minus hus; higher in thiamin (B-vitamin), vitamin E and fiber  Refined/white flour – finely ground endosperm; outer portion removed; low in nutrients; bleached  Enriched grain – nutrients added back after processing  Requires milling (grinding) and sifting – produces flour, bran, germ, semolina (made from durum wheat) b. Rice  Feeds over ½ worlds population  Brown rice – bran layer retained (thiamin/B-vitamin); white rice – milled and polished (low in thiamin) c. Maize (American Corn)  Dry milled – protein and starch not separated; produces corn meal, grits, flour  Wet milled – protein and starch separated; produces starch, dextrose, corn syrup solids, glucose d. Oats  Steamed or kiln-dried, then dehulled; rolled (oat flakes); granulated (fine oatmeal)  Cholesterol-lowering affect; inhibits body’s ability to absorb dietary cholesterol e. Barley  Milled (same processing as wheat)  Used for baking, brewing, vinegar, soups, flour for flatbread f. Rye  Milled and baked (bread, breakfast cereals) g. Quinoa 3 Quicknotes LIFESCI 2N03  High in fiber, CHO and protein; gluten free 2. Legumes – edible seeds from leguminosae family (dried peas, beans, soya beans, lentils, peanuts) o Most adequately meets RDA standards  High in CHO and fiber; adequate levels of protein (complete PRO in soy beans, lentils); vitamins/minerals (thiamin, niacin, zinc, calcium, magnesium); low in fat (except soy beans 8%, peanuts 42%), mostly monosaturated and polyunsaturated 3. Nuts and seeds – almonds, walnuts, pecans, cashews (nuts); sunflower, sesame, pumpkin (seeds) o Eaten raw or roasted; processed for oil o Regular consumption decreases risk for coronary artery disease (action of vitamin E and unsaturated fat) 4. Fruit – fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant enclosing o Inadequate in protein, sodium, calcium, iron, zinc; low in energy (fat); nutrient dense (eg/ B-carotene, precursor of Vitamin A) o Higher intake related to decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, cancer 5. Vegetables – any plant part, except seeds and fruit o Roots/tubers (potatoes (contains solanine neurotoxin in under-skin green portions), turnips, carrots, yams); bulbs (onions, garlic); stems (celery); leaves (lettuce, cabbage, parsley); flowers (broccoli, cauliflower); fungi (mushrooms) o Low in fat, protein; high in starch and dietary fiber o Green, leady vegetables – low in energy; high in micronutrients o Consumption related to lower incidence of lung, stomach, bowel cancer; decreases risk of cardiovascular disease 6. Milk and milk products o Delivers water, high quality protein (cacin, whey); carbohydrate (lactose; digested by lactase); fat (25% monosaturated; 66% saturated); vitamins/minerals (calcium, vitamin D (fortified/added), vitamin A o Pasteurization – destroys disease causing bacteria by heating to 72˚C for 15 seconds then cool immediately a. Yogurt – contains less lactose and more sugar than milk; probiotics (live bacterial cultures to aid GI health; combat ingested contaminants, source of vitamin A) b. Cheese – concentrated source of milk nutrients; more fat and sodium; lower protein content (whey is strained out of curds) 7. Meat and poultry – beef, lamb, pork, chicken o Encompasses muscle tissue and organs (liver, kidneys stomach) o High source of protein and minerals (Fe, Zn, K); iron (more bioavailable in meat than plant) o Meat products – cured (ham, bacon; nitrates and nitrites (salts) added as preservative, potentially carcinogenic); stored at low temperature to prevent microbial growth o Dark meat indicates more fat; type 1 muscle fibers; red; contain myoglobin (muscle cell protein that holds o2to O ) o Fast twitch muscles for high force, high speed, low endurance; slow twitch muscles for endurance 8. Fish and seafood o High quality protein; fat content (0.5-15%); B-vitamins, vitamin D, vitamin E o Fish Oils – long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA); EPA and DHA can be made from APA (from flax) in limited amounts o Found in salmon (dependent on what farmer feeds it) o Dangers – undercooked (active tapeworms, destroys B-vitamins); tetradoxin poisoning (puffer fish); bacterial spoilage; metal (mercury) contamination (tuna) o Health benefits – cardioprotective (due to omega-3 fatty acids) 9. Eggs o High quality protein, high bioavailability; vitamin A, folate, sodium, potassium, phosphorus o Eg/ Large hard boiled egg – Energy 87 kcal; protein 6g; carbohydrate 1g; total fat 5g (1.6 saturated, 2g unsaturated, 0.7g polyunsaturated); cholesterol 216mg (egg yolk) 10. Fats and oils – fat (solid at room temperature); oil (liquid at room temperature); dairy products, vegetable oils/spreads, baked goods o Saturated and trans-type fatty acids linked to cardiovascular disease o Unsaturated oils – prone to oxidation and light damage (store in dark, sealed container) o Polyunsaturated – decompose at high temperatures (eg/ olive oil) o Plant sterols – inhibits absorption of cholesterol in GI system; >1.5g plant sterol will reduce 10-15% blood cholesterol a. Animal fat – high in saturated fat and cholesterol b. Vegetable fat – seeds (canola oil, sunflower, safflower); legumes (soybean, peanut); fruits (olive)  Extra virgin olive oil – made by cold pressing (temperature controlled crushing); vitamin E and anti-oxidant loss is minimized (expensive) 11. Herbs and spices – spices (parts of dried seeds, bark, root); herbs (fresh or dried leaves of plants) o Concentrated form of plant chemicals (not usually nutrients); add distinctive flavour; ingredients to medicine o Parsley – calcium and iron o Fresh herbs – source of beta-carotene and vitamin C (removed by drying and grinding) o High antioxidant activity (oregano, sage, peppermint, thyme, bay leaf, dill, rosemary) o Anti-carcinogenic properties (basil, mint, oregano, rosemary, ginger (anti-emetic), parsley Lecture 3: Anatomy and Physiology of Digestion Digestive System Activities Note – AC = alimentary canal for the purposes of these notes 1. Ingestion – physically taking food into digestive system 2. Propulsion – moving food through alimentary canal o Swallowing – voluntary activity moving food down esophagus o Peristalsis – involuntar(controlled by Nwaves of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle(altering intestinal vessel diameter); moves food through esophagus, stomach and intestine 3. Mechanical Digestion – physical preparation of food for absorption; chewing, mix with enzymes (tongue), churning (stomach) o Segmentation – mixing food wit digestive juices in intestine; smooth muscle (circular) contraction and relaxation breaks substances into smaller pieces 4. Chemica
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