LIFESCI 2N03 Study Guide - Amylopectin, Deoxyribose, Ribose

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Published on 4 Oct 2014
Department
LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
85
LECTURE - CARBOHYDRATES
Figure H4-1: Macronutrients available per capita over time
WHAT IS A CARBOHYDRATE?
Isa“hydrateofcarbon”
Manufactured by plants
Ex: making a glucose molecule
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LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
86
Storage form of glucose
Animals: glycogen
Plants: starch (amylopectin and amylose) & fibre
FIBRE
Non-digestible carbohydrates (in plants)
fermentable (anaerobic breakdown
of glucose by intestinal bacteria)
Dietary vs. Functional Fibre:
Dietary - naturally occurring (oats, beans, veggies)
Functional - fibre that is added to food
(stored in skeletal muscle and liver)
From a dietary perspective - a meat eater eats skeletal
muscle of animal however we do not have access to
glucose that is stored in muscle
"tree" (8-10)
- 3/4 of starch
- most glucose is stored as this
- easier to break down
(20-30)
- 1/4 of starch
- less bioavailable
Chemical bonds between the glucose units of fibre
are different, which changes the behaviour and
structure of fibre, because we do not have the
correct enzyme to break it down.
Decreases the drive to eat again, gel grabs onto fatty acids and this
reduces our chance of cardiovascular disease
Bacterial action will produce SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS which will get
absorbed into the cardiovascular system in the large intestine
"you can't injure a muscle you don't have"
If you decrease abdorbption time, it deceases the
processing problem in type two diabetes…
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LS 2N03 Human Nutrition for Life Sciences
D.M. Pincivero, 2013
87
Function of carbohydrates?
1) “Burned”forenergy
2) Ribose and deoxyribose sugars
3) Structure and strength of plants
4) Linked to proteins and lipids
Glycoprotein: Covalent link between protein and a carbohydrate monomer
Glycolipid: Forms myelin around neuron axons
GLYCOLOSIS !!!!
Back-bone of DNA is a ribose (carb)
Plants are made up of carbs
(found on cell surfaces)
- cell-cell adhesion
Ex. Cardiac muscle, cells must adhere together, glyco-protiens form that link
- Acts as insulation at the cellular levels
- Myelin traps charges from escaping etc. = send potentials faster
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Document Summary

Figure h4-1: macronutrients available per capita over time. Plants: starch (amylopectin and amylose) & fibre glycogen. Glycoprotein: covalent link between protein and a carbohydrate monomer. Sugar alcohols: derived from monosaccharides, used as a sweetener (sorbitol made from glucose) . sweetens sugarless gum. Oligosaccharides: 3-9 cho monomers: considered to be a complex carbohydrate. Examples: raffinose: galactose, glucose, and fructose, stachyose: 2 galactose, glucose, fructose, found in dry beans, peas, lentils, fermentation. Tubers: potatoes, yams, cassava (toxic in raw form) Fibre (g: iceberg lettuce (1 cup) 55 grams, baked potato with skin (0. 5 cup) . 61 grams: medium sized fresh tomato 123 grams, medium sized apple with skin . <1: watermelon (1 cup) 152 grams. Lettuce (iceberg vs. leaf lettuce) 1 cup. Questions: which one is better for you? definitely, ______________________, which one is more expensive? depends on in-store specials of the week.

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