LIFESCI 2N03 Study Guide - Final Guide: Christiaan Eijkman, Scurvy, Vitamin B6

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Published on 12 Dec 2014
Department
Micronutrients
3500 years ago, Arabic and Egyptian Physicians provided foods to help with star-gazing
at night
Followed the practice of Arabic and Egyptian Physicians
Prescribed Beef Liver for star gazing (VITAMIN A) for night blindness
Hippocrates (400 BCE)
British Physician - sailors, SCURVY, LIME, Vitamin C
Vitamin C needed for COLLAGEN synthesis
JAMES LIND
Dutch Scientist
Found VITAMIN B
Nobel Prize for Antineuritic Vitamin
Produced BERIBERI in chicken, cured by BROWN RICE not WHITE due to
THIAMIN
Beriberi impairs glucose metabolism, Nervous system problems, Muscle wasting
CHRISTIAAN EIJKMAN
Polish Biochemist - COINED "VITAMIN"
Isolated a nitrogen containing functional group AMINE in RICE
Discovered that providing amine improved health of Thiamine deprived chickens
VITAL for life is AMINE = Vitamin
CASIMIR FUNK
Organic Molecules - carbon based
Vitamin C CORNERS are carbon atoms
Required in either MG or µG
DO NOT give energy
NOT chain like - individual units
Help harness the energy FROM MACROnutrients
Water soluble go straight to CV system
ADEK are absorbed in CHYLOMICRONS
Fat Soluble ADEK, Water Soluble Bs C
WHAT ARE VITAMINS?
Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Folate, B6, B12
Absorbed directly through intestinal cells into the CV
B12 is stored the MOST
VERY LITTLE storage in the kidney
Vitamin C deficiency symptoms manifest after 20-40 DAYS
Susceptible to filtration by urination WE NEED TO INGEST MORE
Vitamin C and B Vitamins
Toxicity is RATE but B6 is the MOST concerning, very large window
between RDA and UL
Water soluble are urinated if not being used
Large lipoproteins made by intestinal cells
Packaged into CHYLOMICRONS
Bioavailability is 40-90%
Efficiency of absorbing and using DECREASES with GREATER CALORIC
ingestion
Fat Soluble Vitamins are absorbed with DIETARY LIPIDS
HOW ARE VITAMINS ABSORBED?
VITAMINS Exam Notes
December-07-14
1:38
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Competition for absorption INCREASES
ingestion
LACTEAL to LYMPHATIC SYSTEM to CV SYSTEM
Lipoproteins BROKEN UP
Chylomicron remnants taken by the LIVER
Liver processes broken up chylomicron and STORES VITAMINS
POLAR BEAR LIVER will kill you due to excessive VITAMIN A
BEEF LIVER - MAX dosage of vitamins
PATHWAY?
Part of a CO-ENZYME TPP (THIAMIN PYROPHOSPHATE)
TPP works with PDH (Pyruvate Dehydrogenase) to convert pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
PDH active = 38 ATP
If NO PDH then LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase) is used to make lactic acid
PDH INactive - 4 ATP via GLYCOLYSIS
Water Soluble so needed on daily bases
Deficiency caused by reduced food intake, beriberi
Whole grains, Pork
THIAMINE - B1
FAD is a mitochondrial transport for ELECTRON and PROTONS
For E Transport Chain
CO-ENZYME for FMN and FAD - is active in the mitochondria (generated in Kreb's
Cycle)
B2 - Keeps the energy pathway going - MACHINERY PROCESS
Cells in CONSTANT TURN OVER STATE
Deficiency ARIBOFLAVINOSIS - inflammation of membranes (mouth, eyes, etc)
Whole Grains, White Mushrooms
RIBOFLAVIN - B2
Both are electron transporters
Nicotinic Acid and Nicotinamide - PRECURSOR to NAD and NADP
Can be synthesized from TRYPTOPHAN (EAA)
Antioxidant propertoes
Lipid Cholesterol Synthesis
Deficiency - PALLEGRA - (4Ds) Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia, Death)
Sources - EGGS, MILK, FISH, WHOLE GRAINS
Often due to supplements
Blood vessel dilation
Painful TINGLING sensation - sensory neurons start to discharge Aps
Toxic - NIACIN FLUSH - 3 to 4 times the RDA, Nicotinic Acid forms
HIGH does given to treat LDL cholesterol
NIACIN - B3
CO-ENZYME - involved in the Kreb's Cycle
Part of PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASE - turns pyruvate into OXALOACETATE
Burning carbs that will allow our cells to burn FAT as an energy source
Contributes to GLUCONEOGENESIS, fatty acid synthesis
Needed only in MICROgrams
AVIDIN binds to BIOTIN
Skin Rash, Hair Loss, Neurological Symptoms
Deficiency - chronic consumption of raw EGG whites
Sources - Egg Yolk, Whole Grains, Fish
BIOTIN
Part of Co-Enzyme A, enables cells to make ACETYL CoA
Synthesis of lipids, neurotransmitters, hormones, hemoglobin is needed because
RBCs have a small life span
Deficiency - Fatigue, Neurological Symptoms
PANTOTHENIC ACID
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Deficiency - Fatigue, Neurological Symptoms
Sources - Whole Grains, Beef, Broccoli
Group of 6 compounds
Functions as a Co Enzyme for Protein Metabolism
Part of Amino Transferase
Needed to make NEAA
WITHOUT B6 ALL AAs BECOME ESSENTIAL
RBCs and WBCs constantly being made
Exists in different forms
PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE - ACTIVE FORM (PLP)
SUPPORTS over 100 Different ENZYMES
Amino Transferase
Transamination - process of transferring amino group from one AA to other
11 NEAA
Protein Metabolism
RBCs and WBCs
Assists with O2 binding to HEMOGLOBIN
RBCs smaller than normal and lack Heme without can't carry O2
Deficiency - MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA - Low RBC Count
Blood Cell Synthesis
High Levels contribute to PLAQUE formation
Heart attack related HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS
Diet high in PARADOXYL PHOSPHATE convert homocysteine to cysteine
But this is a two way street…C can be turned to HC
By product of high cysteine concentrations
Blood vessels harden
Causes proliferation of vascular smooth muscle
Contributes to plaque formation
HOMOCYSTINURIA - inherited GENETIC disease, lack of enzyme
that metabolized cysteine
HOMOCYSTEINE
Reduce Risk of Myocardial Infarction
Gluconeogenesis - from AAs which come from MUSCLE TISSUE
Facilitation of Glycogen Breakdown
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Serotonin, GABA, Dopamine, NE
Neurotransmitter Synthesis
Same for men and women
Higher for 51+
Neuronal damage - permanent
1000-2000 mg can lead to protein modification
Since water soluble - not toxic even if 700% of UL
RDA
Sources - Meat, Fish, Bananas, Watermelon
Deficiency - RARE - anemia, CNS symptoms
VITAMIN B6
VITAL for NEW TISSUE development
Glutamate is the ONLY AA that is metabolized by the NEURONS
3 Parts - Glutamate, PABA, Pteridine
FOLIC ACID - most stable form of FOLATE
ABSORBED in SMALL INTESTINE - glutamate becomes folic acid
Folate is CRITICAL during FORMATION of EMBRYO, Rapid Cell Division
Amino Acid Metabolism, DNA Synthesis,
Function of Folate
FOLATE
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Document Summary

3500 years ago, arabic and egyptian physicians provided foods to help with star-gazing at night. Followed the practice of arabic and egyptian physicians. Prescribed beef liver for star gazing (vitamin a) for night blindness. British physician - sailors, scurvy, lime, vitamin c. Produced beriberi in chicken, cured by brown rice not white due to. Beriberi impairs glucose metabolism, nervous system problems, muscle wasting. Isolated a nitrogen containing functional group amine in rice. Discovered that providing amine improved health of thiamine deprived chickens. Water soluble are urinated if not being used. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folate, b6, b12. Absorbed directly through intestinal cells into the cv. Susceptible to filtration by urination we need to ingest more. Vitamin c deficiency symptoms manifest after 20-40 days. Toxicity is rate but b6 is the most concerning, very large window between rda and ul. Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed with dietary lipids. Efficiency of absorbing and using decreases with greater caloric ingestion.

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