LIFESCI 2N03 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Glycemic Load, Essential Fatty Acid, Insulin Receptor

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Published on 2 Feb 2016
School
McMaster University
Department
Life Sciences
Course
LIFESCI 2N03
How do you calculate glycemic load? !
Multiply the glycemic index by available carbohydrates
What is the glycemic load a predictor of? !
Type II DM and CVD
What are the ranges of a high medium and low glycemic load? !
less than or equal to 10 is low
11-19 is medium
greater than or equal to 20 is high
What is GLUT1
It is a transporter protein found in the muscle fibre membrane that transports glucose
What happens when insulin binds to the insulin receptor? !
It triggers a cascade of enzymatic reactions that results in the transaction of GLUT4 to the
muscle cell membrane
How many amino acids is insulin?
51
How many chains does insulin have?
2
How many amino acids is glucagon?
29
What hormone indicates a physiologically starved state? !
Glucagon
What hormone activates gluconeogenesis?
Glucagon
What is Diabetes insipidus? !
Lack of ADH… so less water reabsorption into the kidney
What is the normal range of blood glucose? !
80-110mg/dL could rise to 140mg/dL
4.4-6.1mmol/L
What happens to Beta-cells during T1DM
Engulfed by immune cells
What are the consequences of no insulin on the liver? !
No activation of GLUT2
Increase in glycogenolysis in the liver
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What is the Renal Threshold? !
It is the threshold level go glucose in the blood where the kidneys can still reabsorb glucose
before it starts entering the urine.
170-200mg/dL
Why is a symptom of T1DM thirst and urination? !
Because glucose is not entering the urine… water will follow through osmosis and thus make
you dehydrated
Describe the interaction between insulin and the 7TM receptor
Insulin binds to the 7TM receptor and inhibits TG lipase.
List 4 complications of high insulin in the blood? !
Increase production of glucagon, cortisol and catecholamines
Increase Lipolysis
Increase Ketoacids !
Increase respiration rate
What are 3 companies that sell synthetic insulin? !
Humulin, Eli-lilly, and Humulog
Why is exercise an effective way to bring down blood glucose in TIIDM? !
Because exercise transports GLUT4 to the muscle cell membrane
What is syndrome X
Hyperinsulinemia, Hypertension, and insulin resistance
List two quick facts on triglycerides? !
It is the largest category of lipids making up 98% and is found in both plants and animals
Phospholipids are found in what percentage of diet? !
2%
From what sources can phospholipids be obtained from? !
Plant and animal sources
Describe the solubility of Phospholipids
Soluble in both fat and water
Sterols are precursors to what? !
Hormones (sex hormones and cortisol) Vitamin D and Bile acids.
Outline the lengths of carbon chains for short, medium and long chain fatty acids.
Short: less than 6 carbons
Medium: 6-10 Carbons
Long: Greater than 12 carbons
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Document Summary

What are the ranges of a high medium and low glycemic load? less than or equal to 10 is low. 11-19 is medium greater than or equal to 20 is high. It is a transporter protein found in the muscle bre membrane that transports glucose. It triggers a cascade of enzymatic reactions that results in the transaction of glut4 to the muscle cell membrane. Lack of adh so less water reabsorption into the kidney. It is the threshold level go glucose in the blood where the kidneys can still reabsorb glucose before it starts entering the urine. Because glucose is not entering the urine water will follow through osmosis and thus make you dehydrated. Describe the interaction between insulin and the 7tm receptor. Insulin binds to the 7tm receptor and inhibits tg lipase. Because exercise transports glut4 to the muscle cell membrane. It is the largest category of lipids making up 98% and is found in both plants and animals.

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