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LINGUIST 1A03- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 39 pages long!)


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LINGUIST 1A03
Professor
Catherine Anderson
Study Guide
Final

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McMaster
LINGUIST 1A03
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

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September 5th/2017
Videos 1 Introduction to Linguistics
Video 1A: Linguistics is Science!
- The science of language
o Simple definition
o B siee, eas it’s the a e ask uestios to lea aout laguage uses a
scientific approach
o Using systematic empirical approach
Observe data to back up our theories
Ex. Linguists observe how people use their language
- Observations we make about language are NOT value judgement
- linguistics take descriptive approach NOT prescriptive
o Describe what people do
o Not presie ho the should/should’t do it
o You do’t tell a eetle its eatig og ad that it should eat like the at
Instead you observe
o Observe what people say and develop why they say these things
- Linguistics is science of human language
o Plenty of species communicate with each other
o Focus on unique system that humans use
o Humans have difference from all other species that make our language unique
Articulatory System
Lungs, larynx, vocal folds, shape of tongue,
No species can do this as well as we can
Auditory System
Ears sensitive to frequencies in human speech
Human newborns pay special attention to human speech
Neural System
No species has a brain as complex and densely connected as ours
So many connections dedicated to producing and understanding
language
Video 1B: Linguistics Studies Mental Grammar
- Linguistics is a member of cognitive science
- Cognitive science = what goes on in the mind
- Shared system that allows us to understand each other
o Mental grammar
- Phonetics study of speech sounds
- Phonology organized sounds
- Morphology strategies language is used to form words
- Syntax words combined to form sentences
- Semantics meanings of words and sentences organized in mind
- Core pieces of mental language
o What everyone knows
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o Phonetics
o Phonology
o Morphology
o Syntax
o Semantics
Video 1C: Creativity and Generativity
- The most fundamental property of human language
o Creativity
o Every language can express any possible concept
o Mental grammar is governed by systematic principles
o
- Every language can generate an infinite number of possible new words and sentences
o Generativity
o Finite
o Small and finite principles for combining those words
o Generative infinite number of sentences
o Human grammar is generative
Video 1D: Fundamental Properties of Language
- All languages have grammar
o Have a sound system performing words, organizing words into sentences
- Generality
o All languages have grammar
- Parity
o All languages are equally valid
No way to say that this grammar is better than that grammar
Liguistis do’t offe alue to specific languages or dialects
- Universality
o All languages have some common properties
o Ex. All languages have consonants and vowels
- Mutability
o All languages change over time
o E. Google did’t eist a log tie ago ut o it’s a e popula od
- Inaccessibility
o Almost all knowledge in our mental grammar is unconscious knowledge
Acquired as children
o Ho a ou ko soethig if ou’e ot osious of koig it?
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