Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding
– Magnitude of force is a function of interatomic
– The bond‐length corresponds to the distance
at which the attractive and repulsive forces
– Minimum energy is
called the bond energy. (Energy that is
required to completely separate two
- High bonding energy = High melting Temperature
- When one element loses electrons and the
other gains electrons. The resulting ions attract
and form a strong bond. Ionic Bond
- Stable electron configuration is achieved Polymorphic: has more than one crystal structure
by sharing/overlap of outer orbitals. Covalent Bd Miller Direction Indices:-
- Metallic Bond = metals bonding 1. Start at any cell corner.
2. Find coordinates of vector in units of a,b, c.
-Secondary Bonding = weak bd 3. Multiply or divide all the coordinates by a common factor.
Aka van der Waals bond
– To reduce all the coordinates to the smallest possible integer values.
4. Represent as [ u v w]
– no commas
5. Represent negative directions as ū.
Miller Plane Indices:-
– Choose a starting point so that the plane does not pass
through the origin.
– Find the intercepts in units of x, y, z, planes parallel to an axis
have an intercept at infinity.
– Find the reciprocals of the intercepts: 1/x, 1/y, 1/z.
– Multiply or divide by common factor to get the smallest
possible integer values.
– Represent the index as(h k l) – no commas.
Example for famalies of direction etc:
Which of the following planes contains all of the following directions ,
Solution: Take each choice and do DOT PRODUCT with the directions in the
question and see which option give you a DOT PRODUCT of 0.