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Final

Materials 1M03: Crib sheet Mid 1

2 Pages
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Department
Materials Science and Engineering
Course Code
MATLS 1M03
Professor
Hatem Zurob

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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding
Magnitude of force is a function of interatomic
distance
The bond‐length corresponds to the distance
at which the attractive and repulsive forces
exactly balance.
Minimum energy is
called the bond energy. (Energy that is
required to completely separate two
atoms)
- High bonding energy = High melting Temperature
- When one element loses electrons and the
other gains electrons. The resulting ions attract
and form a strong bond. Ionic Bond
- Stable electron configuration is achieved
by sharing/overlap of outer orbitals. Covalent Bd
- Metallic Bond = metals bonding
-Secondary Bonding = weak bd
Aka van der Waals bond
Chapter 3: The structure of crystalline solids
Polymorphic: has more than one crystal structure
Miller Direction Indices:-
1. Start at any cell corner.
2. Find coordinates of vector in units of a, b, c.
3. Multiply or divide all the coordinates by a common factor.
To reduce all the coordinates to the smallest possible integer values.
4. Represent as [ u v w]
no commas
5. Represent negative directions as ū.
Miller Plane Indices:-
Choose a starting point so that the plane does not pass
through the origin.
Find the intercepts in units of x, y, z, planes parallel to an axis
have an intercept at infinity.
Find the reciprocals of the intercepts: 1/x, 1/y, 1/z.
Multiply or divide by common factor to get the smallest
possible integer values.
Represent the index as(h k l) no commas.
Example for famalies of direction etc:
Which of the following planes contains all of the following directions [010],
[111]and [101]:
(a) (010)
(b) (111)
(c) (101)
(d) (101)
Solution: Take each choice and do DOT PRODUCT with the directions in the
question and see which option give you a DOT PRODUCT of 0.
Most materials contain many crystals called grains = polycrystal /
polycrystalline.
The region of atomic mismatch where grains meet is called a grain
boundary.
The physical properties of a material differ depending on the
crystallographic direction in which the measurement is taken Anisotropy
Isotropic: Properties which are independent of the direction of
measurement are referred to as being isotropic.
o As structural symmetry decreases, anisotropy increases
X-RAY DIFFRACTION
• X‐Rays help determine atomic interplanar distances and crystal structures
• A form of electromagnetic Radiation with high energy and short
wavelengths.
Diffraction: Constructive Interference of x‐ray beams that are scattered by
atoms of a crystal.
Crystals diffract X-rays
Bragg’s law says constructive interference will occur if the extra path is a
multiple of the wavelength:
(n)(wavelength) =2dsin(theta)
n=1,2,3 (if not indicated 1st order reflection)
d=

a= lattice parameter

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Description
Chapter 2: Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding – Magnitude of force is a function of interatomic distance – The bond‐length corresponds to the distance at which the attractive and repulsive forces exactly balance. – Minimum energy is called the bond energy. (Energy that is required to completely separate two atoms) - High bonding energy = High melting Temperature - When one element loses electrons and the other gains electrons. The resulting ions attract and form a strong bond. Ionic Bond - Stable electron configuration is achieved Polymorphic: has more than one crystal structure by sharing/overlap of outer orbitals. Covalent Bd Miller Direction Indices:- - Metallic Bond = metals bonding 1. Start at any cell corner. 2. Find coordinates of vector in units of a,b, c. -Secondary Bonding = weak bd 3. Multiply or divide all the coordinates by a common factor. Aka van der Waals bond – To reduce all the coordinates to the smallest possible integer values. 4. Represent as [ u v w] – no commas 5. Represent negative directions as ū. Miller Plane Indices:- – Choose a starting point so that the plane does not pass through the origin. – Find the intercepts in units of x, y, z, planes parallel to an axis have an intercept at infinity. – Find the reciprocals of the intercepts: 1/x, 1/y, 1/z. – Multiply or divide by common factor to get the smallest possible integer values. – Represent the index as(h k l) – no commas. Example for famalies of direction etc: Which of the following planes contains all of the following directions [010], [111]and [101]: (a) (010) (b) (111) (c)(101) (d) (101) Solution: Take each choice and do DOT PRODUCT with the directions in the question and see which option give you a DOT PRODUCT of 0.
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