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Multimedia Exam Prep.docx

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McMaster University
Liss Platt

Multimedia Exam Prep Articles: McLuhen - The Gadget Lover - We are fascinated by extensions of ourselves that we do not recognize as ourselves. - This obsession often leads to “numbness” of other forms of sensory perception - If one sense is over stimulated, the nervous system numbs the others to protect yourself - In a similar way, a technologically extended (amputated) sense numbs one’s other senses. o “auto-amputation” - sense that has been extended through technology + reduces the over stimulation - to reach equilibrium Turkle - No Need to Call - Text messaging levels the “social playing field” between the shy and outgoing - It safeguards people from feeling embarrassed while they carefully plan their message, allowing them to control the presentation of their message. o Controls how/when a convo begins/ends o You can ignore or avoid 3 Key Points about Calling: 1. Intimate medium 2. Not as much emotional hiding (vs. texting) 3. Intrusion contact (the demand when calling) - Similarly, by controlling their self-presentation on the internet, people can test others’ reactions to them. - “Consequence - free identity play” - does it really not have any consequences? - Sometimes if you know each other, behaviour online can affect real world relationships. Marche - Is Facebook making us lonely - FB technology has made us almost perpetually connected and available - Technology makes our social connections much broader but also much like a shell over ourselves o It is not isolation or “being alone” that makes us unhappy = its loneliness - The biggest factor of loneliness is the lack of quality social interactions - Burke: FB can increase or decrease social connections based on how it is used - *Those who write/receive comments = more socially connected - *Those who passively scan the network (or broadcast) = more lonely - We envy the social capital of others Gladwell - 10,000 hour rule - Most of us would agree that there is such a thing as “innate talent” - Achievement = talent + preparation - Social opportunities are needed to facilitate the amount of preparation needed to make a difference in a person’s odds of being successful o Ex. 10 hour gig in Stockholm - The Beatles o They became successful because they were presented opportunities since their birthday was a certain time (1950s) o The personal computer revolution began in the 1950s  Steve Jobs / Bill Gates o They were able to achieve what they did because of the era they were in (Technology was advancing in computers) Gladwell - The Matthew Effect - Those who gain small advantages now, will likely continue to gain more advantages o More likely to become successful - Ex. Professional sports teams - important factor to determine who gets to play in professional leagues (larger kids = first months of the year) - Same happens in schools-teachers: confuse maturity with ability Keen (“mean” about appropriation) - People ignorant of and often disregard intellectual property rights because: - The frequency of intellectual property being “stolen”, in various ways, on the internet - The ease which web 2.0 technology allows for the copying/pasting of content - Web 2.0 delivers a superficial observation of the world around us rather than deep analysis, shrill opinion rather - The real consequence of the Web 2.0 revolution is less culture, less reliable news, and a chaos of useless information - Today’s media is shattering the world into a billion personalized truths, each seemingly equally valid and worthwhile - Our attitudes about “authorship” are undergoing a radical change as a result of today’s democratized internet culture - Talent is built on intermediaries, if you ‘disintermediate’these layers, then you do away with the development of talent too - Ex. Thomas Friedman - The New York Times columnist - Robert Fisk - middle east correspondent of the Independent Newspaper o They acquire their knowledge through in depth knowledge and spending years in the region - Taste = Pandora, can automatically tell us what music or movies we will like. But artificial intelligence is a poor substitute for taste. - Web 2.0’s narcissistic, self-congratulatory, self-generated content revolution has exploded - “Democratized media” - Moral Disaster: Ms. Greenfield’s research indicates that the ubiquity of digital technology is altering the shape and chemistry of our brains, and that violent video games and intense online interactivity can generate mental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, and hyper-activity. The Web 2.0 generation will be more prone to real-world violence, less able to compromise or negotiate, apt to be poor learners, and lacking in empathy. o Corroding and corrupting the values of our nation Jenkins (“kind” about appropriation) - Factors that contribute to the recent resurgence in amateur media productions and their popularity - The mass marketing of popular culture allows for the appropriation of content form well known franchise and mythologies. - New digital media technologies allow for technical precision at a low cost - The internet provides a low-cost platform for amateurs to mass-distribute their work - Corporations have tried to legally regulate or criminalize for made derivative works of their media o Fans sue open sourcing (if they build off fan art for corporation $$) o Unable to sensor certain amateur works: corporation disappointed Lessig: “Free Culture” - Walt Disney creativity: a form of expression and genius that builds upon the culture around us and makes it something different - Some things remain free for the taking within a free culture and that freedom is good - Ex. Scientists build on theories - Free cultures are cultures that leave a great deal open for others to build upon; unfree, or permission, cultures leave much less. Our culture used to be free but it is becoming less. - We have become a “Read-Only” Culture - 20 Century Media - “Piracy” - using the creative property of others without their permission - if “value then right” is true - then the history is a history of piracy (content wise). - If ‘piracy’means using value from someone else’s creative property without permission from that creator - as it is increasingly described today- then every industry affected by copyright today is the product and beneficiary of a certain kind of piracy. Film, records, radio, cable TV. Every generation welcomes the pirates from the last. Every generation - until now. - Lessig wrote: “One learns to write with images by making them and then reflecting upon what one has created” - Free Culture - Examples of free culture from lecture: Steam Boat Willy and Mickey Mouse Appropriation and Remix - Appropriation can be understood as “the use of borrowed elements in the creation of a new work” - Remix is broader term that includes literacy, visual, and performing arts - It is understood that the new work re-contextualized whatever it borrows to create new work Canadian Copy Right Law - Fair Dealing - Bill C-11 permissible purposes for fair dealing under Canadian laws included: 1. Research 2. Private Study 3. Criticism 4. Review 5. New Reporting Expanded to: 6. Education 7. Satire 8. Parody Read-Only-Culture vs. Read/Write Culture Lessig - Read only culture is a small professional group that produces all the culture that is then consumed by the masses, leaving no room to interact with the culture. Read/Write culture - where the public is free to add, change, influence, and interact with their culture Lessig - ‘Remix’ - He believes that the ability to remix media and culture is a fundamental expression of creative freedom - He also believes that it supports and not weakens the market of the material that it mixes, so copyright laws should be loosened in areas where remix culture can thrive - The Internet - through forums, blogs, ranking and comment functions where users can “talk back” - has opened up a system of read and write culture where users help one another to understand and/or criticize text works - Linking together, these user feedback cycles help to determine who is popular and/or has a trusted reputation, for quality and truth, allowing different forms of writing to be fully open to public debate and scrutiny. Democratization - The internet allows for asynchronous communication - Why is this important for democracy? - Creates time + space for democratic debate Remix Culture - Aseries of collages made with digital images (cheap+easy) o Made up of fragments - Can contain powerful messages - Appropriated works represent emotional and culture symbolism - Ex.Assignment 3 - Collage about pop culture Public Domain - Use of culture not controlled by the law - Free for anyone to build without seeking permission - “No society, free or controlled, has ever demanded that every use be paid for.” - Lessig, Free Culture Free Culture - George Eastman’s invention of mass photography with the Kodak camera gave amateurs an easy method of self-expression and life-documenting o Rose legal questions about capturing images and property ownership - It was ruled that images were part of the public space, and without this ruling, photography would likely never have become a wide spread practice, which digital media technologies has made increasingly inexpensive. Free Culture: Media Literacy - The ability to understand and critique media content, delivery and access o To actually engage with media - Culture of “learning by tinkering” - leads to learning, improvement, and creative models of expression.
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