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MUSIC 1A03 (19)

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Joe Argentino

Introduction 11/26/2012 1:13:00 PM Final Exam Cumulative Tests cover all music previously listened to throughout the course TA: Esther Hall-Cotterell o email: [email protected] o Office: TSH B109a o Office hours: Tues 1:30 Wed 11:30 Elements of Music 11/26/2012 1:13:00 PM Melody: The Tune Melody is a single line of notes heard in succession as a coherent units A melody has shape, moving up and down in ways that capture and hold our attention over a span of time A melody is like a story: it has a beginning, middle and an end A note (or pitch): smallest unit of music Cadence points of arrival/rest o Like a period in a sentence Melodic Motion: o Conjunct Motion: smooth melody in which notes are adjacent to one another steps o Disjunct Motion: melody skips around and notes jump from high to low Scales: notes of melody are typically derived from the notes of a scale Contour: upward or downward movement (motion of melody) Interval(s): distance Major mode: happier mode Minor mode: sadder mode Tonic: Most important pitch in a piece of music (C in a C major scale) Octave: doubling in frequency of note Rhythm: The Time Rhythm is the ordering of music through time Not all music has a melody, but all music has rhythm A drum solo, for example, makes its effect primarily through rhythm Rhythm can operate at many levels, from a repetitive, underlying pulse or beat to rapidly changing patterns of longer and shorter sounds Meter: basic framework of this temporal ordering o Triple Meter: 3 beats to a measure o Duple Meter: two beats to a measure Measure: rhythmic units in music Harmony: Supporting the Melody Harmony if the sound created by multiple voices playing or singing together Harmony enriches the melody by creating a fuller sound than can be produced by a single voice Chord: when 3 or more notes are played at the same moment Texture: Thick and Thin Texture is based on the number and general relationship of musical lines or voices Every work of music has a texture from thick (many voices) to thin (a single voice) Sometimes one line or voice is more important; at other times, all the lines or voices are of equal importance Monophonic: a single melodic line with no accompaniment Homophonic: the melody is performed with a supporting accompaniment Polyphonic: the melody is performed against another line of equal importance o Every line is, in effect, a melody Timbre: The Colour of Music Timbre is the character of a sound The same melody sounds very different when performed by a violin, a clarinet, a guitar or a human voice These sources can all produce the same pitch, but what makes the same melody sound different is the different timbre of each one Dynamics: Loud to Soft The same music can be performed at many degrees of volume, from very soft to very loud Dynamics determine the volume of a given work or passage in a work of music Pianissimo (pp), piano (p), mezzo piano (mp) fortissimo (ff) Form: The Architecture of Music A single melody is usually too short to constitute a complete work of music Typically, a melody is repeated, varied, or contrasted with a different melody The way in which all these subunits are put together the structure of the whole is musical form Form is based on repetition (A A), variation (A A), contrast (A B), or some combination of these three possibilities Word-Music Relationships: How Words Shape What We Hear If there is a text to be sung, we must consider the relationship of the words to the music How does the music capture the meaning and spirit of its text? And even if there is not a text to be sung, many works have titles that suggest how we might hear them Titles like Winter, Rodeo, and The Rite of Spring strongly influence the way in which we hear these works Some composers have even written detailed descriptions of what a particular work is about in what we call program music Word Painting using musical elements to describe a word or phrase Often the structure of the poetry matches the form of the work Repetitions/variations/contrasts in the poetry may correspond to repetitions/variations/contrasts in the music Genre: Great Expectations Just as literature has its genres or categories poems, novels, dramas and so on so too does music have its genres, such as symphony, opera, waltz, or cantata A genre shapes our expectations of what we are likely to experience Musical genres are based in part on who is playing A symphony, for example, is normally for an orchestra of instrumentalists (though there are exceptions), while an opera is for an ensemble of singers and an orchestra Musical genres are also based on the social function of a given work A waltz is a dance with a certain pattern of steps that demands a certain metrical pattern in the music, while a cantata is a sacred work meant to be performed in a church Categorization by o Performance medium (solo voices, choir, orchestra, string quartet, band etc.) o Social function Sets up expectations for the lisener Rondo Form ABACA Coda ABACABA Coda Mozarts Alla Turca o B (aba) o A o C (aba) o A o B (aba) o A o Coda o 7 part rondo that had the first A section removed
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