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January 29th Music Review Test #1 Notes.docx

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McMaster University
Matthew Woolhouse

Music 1AA3 – Class #11: Review of Classical Era Part 4: Chapters 20, 22, 23, 24, 25 Listening component: - 4 questions on the test o They will be from these chapters (20, 22, 23, 24, 25) Elements of Music - Two components are amplitude and frequency - Frequency relates to musical pitch - Scales and keys are made from repeating pattern of musical intervals – 7 notes per octave - Major keys (happy) and Minor keys (sad) - Single lines of notes is heard as melody  the tune you would sing along to generally - Rhythm is the ordering of music in time  when musical events are happening - Three or more notes sounding together creates a chord  also known as harmony/accompaniment, doesn’t sound great by itself, helps the music come together, gives a core structure to the music - Different types of musical textures: o Monophonic o Homophonic o Polyphonic - Every instrument has unique sound – timbre  how trumpet sounds different then a clarinet sounds - Loudness and softness in music – dynamics  piano, mezzforte, forte - Music made from individual unites – form  AAB, ABA, ABC, etc. - Different musical categories – genre  concerto, sonata, symphony, etc. Classical Era - Culture o 1720 – 1790  age of Enlightenment o Enlightenment thought – reason could bring man to age of advancement and progress, free from superstition o There was a lot of development technologically, scientifically and politically o Excessive ornamentation gave way to Classical ideals of balance and clarity - Music (know the birth/death dates and when they were musically engaged) o 1750 – 1800  shorter and later than culturally o Dominated by Mozart and Haydn o But other famous composers in 18C: C.P.E. Bach, Salieri, Gluck, Dittersdorf o Reflected classical principles of clarity, proportion, “naturalness” (music of the heart) o Melodies more tuneful, less complicated o Phrase structure in all genres more balanced/symmetrical (everything is in 4bar chunks, balanced, predictable/naturalness) o Musical texture homophonic rather than polyphonic o Greater use of contrast (emotional changes in Sonata form) Haydn - String Quartet in C Major o 3 fundamental process of composition  repetition, variation, contrast o Haydn’s Quartet in C Major (1797), 2 Movement does all 3:  Based on repeating melody, “God save Franz, the Emperor” (now Germany’s national anthem)  Haydn melody uses “periodic” phrase structure  bigger sections of ideas, a significant number of bars, not just 4bar phrases  Consists of antecedent (beginning of a sentence, states part of
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