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Music History Exam Notes

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Andrew Mitchell

CHAPTER 29 Late Romanticism in Germany and AustriaOLD music vs NEW music th Prior to the 19 century most music performed outside of church was composed within living memoryBy 1850 a basic repertory of musical classics had been createdThe new field of musicology formalized the study of music of the past o Complete works of composers were published such asBach Handel Mozart Beethoven Schubert and ChopinoSince Germans did much of the scholarly work composers from Germany became the primary focus o Little known works of the Renaissance and Baroque were collected and published in a number of sets and monumentsPerformers and audiences had both old and new works available to them Brahms vs WagnerBrahms sought to create works within the classical traditionsWagner and Liszt saw the legacy of Beethoven pointing toward new genres and musical approachesThese divergent views polarized around Brahms and WagnerComposers debated the relative merits of o Absolute and program music o Tradition and innovation o Classical genres and forms and new onesBoth sides linked themselves to BeethovenThe music from both sides was known as classical music since it was intended for performance alongside the classical repertoryNationalism vs internationalismMany composers turned to nationalism to add a distinctive new flavor Russia and US composers split between nationalists and internationalistsClassical vs popular musicEarlier composers could write both serious and light music th In late 19 century composers specialized in one area FRANZ LISZT The New German School o Coined by a music critic in 1859 o Wagner Liszt and Berlioz o Beethoven was their modelHe retired from career as a concert pianist in 1848 o He became court music director at Welmar and focused on composition o Works then went beyond virtuoso display Symphonic Poems tho Composed 12 tone poems between 184858 and added a 13 in 188182 o One movement program work for orchestra o Forms closely related to traditional classical structures o 2 program symphonies that function like a series of symphonic poemsFaust Symphony 1854Dante Symphony 1856Choral Music o Reflect the accommodation between past and presentLiszts Influences o Symphonic poem adapted by a number of other composers o Chromatic harmonies helped form Wagners style after 1854 o Even his divisions of the octave augmented triad had impact on Russian and French composers ANTON BRUCKNER 18241896 Trained in counterpoint served as organist of the cathedral at Linz and in Vienna from 1867 to his deathBrought Wagners style and ethos into his symphonies and choral music SYMPHONIES o Composed 9 numbered symphonies and 2 unnumbered ones o Most underwent extensive revisionsInfluences of Beethoven o All are 4 movements none explicitly programmatic o Beethovens symphony no 9 was a modelInfluences of Wagner o Large scale structures o Extended lengths o Sequential repetition of entire passages o Huge orchestraOrchestration influenced by experiences as an organistCHORAL MUSIC
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