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MUSIC 1AA3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Melodic Motion

Course Code
Dave Gerry
Study Guide

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Music Midterm I 2014 January
Classical era (1750-1800)-mozart->symphony No.40 in G minor 1st movement
19 century (1800-1900)- Chopin-> Mazurka in B-flat
20 century (1901-2000)- Leonard Bernstein-> tonight
Melody-The a single line of note heard in succession as a coherent unit
Rhythm- The Time. Rhythm is the ordering of music through time. <not all music has
melody but they all have rhythm>
Harmony-supporting the melody. sound created by multiple voices playing / singing
Note-is the smallest unit of music
Phrases- sentence? LOL the melody between your 1st breath and 2nd
Cadence(Latin, cadere, “to fall”)- a melody typically ends with a cadence; like a period at
the end of a sentence
Melodic motion refers to the shape or direction of a string of notes
-Upward motion: ascending trajectory
- Downward motion: Descending trajectory
-Disjunct motion: motion by leaps (especially large leaps)
ex: C->B->D
-Conjunct motion: stepwise motion with notes very close to each other
ex: C->D->E
A melody’s overall shape is referred to as its contour, which si frequently arch
shaped(rise and fall)
Scale- a series of notes that moves stepwise and cover a complete span called -octave
(it covers 8 notes.)
Ex.: do re mi fa so la ti do
Interval- the distance between each note <C->F = 4th >
-2nd and 3rd are narrow interval but 4th to 6th are wide
Tonic- Start and end note. And is made from a pattern of whole step and half
Standard Scale: are mostly whole steps with 2 strategically placed half steps.
-Whole step: C-D-E -Half Step: E->F
Key- the most important note of a scale and the central model on which a melody or
piece is based.
-Western music are usually based on one of 12 major and minor keys
- Starting on tonic note C= music in the key of C
-each possible tonic, there are 2 possible keys, one major and one minor
Major key sounds: Happy, Bright Minor Key sounds: sad, dark
Rhythm- is the ordering of music through time
-most music fits within a regular time grid made up of beats
- Beats are usually organized into group:
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- |12||12| -> 2 (Duple Meter)
- |123||123| -> 3 (Triple Meter)
- |1234||1234|-> 4 (Duple Meter)
Grouping of beats is called “Meter”; Bar/ measure= each group of beat
-usually the first beat is more important (strong-weak-weak) or (long-short-short)
Tempo : the speed at which music is played
Tonic Chord: the chord is based on the tonic
Texture-thick and thin. Texture is based on the number and general relationship of
musical lines or voices.
-many voices: Thick
-single voice: Thin
Main types of textures:
1) Monophony-single unaccompanied melody; solo/ unison -->Thin
2) Polyphony-More than one voice or part plays a melody simultaneously-->Thick
3) Homophony- Polyphonic music in which all melodic parts move together at more or
less the same pace.
Timbre: the color of music. Timbre is the character of a sound. The same melody
sounds very different when performed by a violin, a clarinet, or human voice. Even its
the same pitch, same melody->sound different because of the Timber
Dynamics: Loud to soft. The same music can be performed at many different
volume(from very soft to very loud). --can happen suddenly and slowly
Italian Terms:
pp (pianissimo) : very soft
p(piano)- soft
mp(mezzo piano) -medium soft, speaking voice
mf (mezzo forte)- medium loud, speaking voice
f(forte) - loud, speaking loudly
ff(fortissimo) very loud, yelling
Cres (crescendo). - becoming louder
Dim.(diminuendo)- becoming softer
sfz(sforzando)- suddenly louder, accented
Form: The Architecture of Music. A single melody is usually too short to constitute a
complete work of music. Form is based on:
- Repetition (A A)
- Variation (A A’)
- Contrast (A B)
The way these subunits are put together, the structure of the whole, is musical form.
~Most common forms include AB(two-part form) and ABA (three-part form)
Word- Music Relationships: how words shape what we hear. If there is a text to be
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