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Peace Studies
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1 Peace Studies 2BB3 Exam Notes Format of the Final Exam: 35% of the Total Grade Time: 2 Hours Short Questions: 6 x 10 = 60 [In 3 sections] One Essay: 1 x 40 = 4 ---------------------------- Pool of Short Questions (examples and illustrations where necessary..): Religion and ethnicity: FALL OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE ● ARABS: IRAQ (SHIA-SUNNI) ● PERSIANS: IRAN ● TURKS: TURKEY ● KURDS: IN SEARCH OF HOMELAND ● SAUDI ARABIA: SUNNI CROWN ● BAHRAIN: (SHIA-MAJORITY, SUNNI- LED) ● SYRIA: AS A THEATRE OF WAR FOR THE MIDDLE EAST PLAYERS – AFTER EGYPT AND LIBYA. NEIGHBORING AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA ● SLOVANIA: NW, SLAVIC, CATHOLIC ● CROATIA: WEST, SECOND LARGEST, SLAVIC, CATHOLIC ● BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA ( BOSNIA): MULTI-ETHNICITY WITH MOSLEM PLURALITY. ● MONTENEGRO: SLAVIC, ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN ● MACEDONIA: SLAVIC, ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN ● SERBIA: LARGEST REPUBLIC, SLAVIC ORTHODOX. ● KOSOVA (AUTONOMOUS REGION IN THE SOUTH): MOSLEM ALBANIAN MAJORITY. ● VOJVODINA (AUTONOMOUS REGION IN THE NORTH): STRONG HUNGARIAN MINORITY. SOUTH WEST ASIA ● AFGHANISTAN: (SHIAS-SUNNIS) ● PATHANS, HAZARA, TAJIKS, KIRGIJ, UZBEKS, SOUTH ASIA ● (INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, NEPAL, BHUTAN) ● HINDUS ● MUSLIMS ● BUDDHISTS ● CHRISTIAN ● (ETHNICITY GOES BEYOND RELIGION IN EXACTING LOYALTY) ● ALL WORLD RELIGIONS FOR WORLD PEACE. ● UNIVERSAL HUMANITARIANISM • LOVE AND COMPASSION WARS ARE WAGED FOR POLITICAL GAINS. MAIN causes of War: ● Militarism: • Germany tried to rival France and Russia in Army; and England in Navy. ● Alliance: 2 • Germany + Austria-Hungary + Italy Vs. England + France + Russia (German belligerence drove the French into the arms of the British; the French and the British were rivals before.) ● Imperialism: • European powers were competing for colonies. • By 1870, Germany had grown to be too powerful, disrupted balance of power in Europe. • Nurtured colonial ambition like France in North Africa, England (Asia-Africa) and U.S.A. (South America). • Major empires on the verge of collapse: Habsburg, Ottoman, Tsarist & Japanese. ● Nationalism: • Smaller European countries in Balkans wanted self-rule. Ethnicism paramount. • Russia fanned the flames of pan- Slavism, supported Serbia. • Austria supported Bosnia. ALL THESE FACTORS WERE IMPORTANT IN THE MAKING OF THE WORLD WAR II AS WELL Wilson’s 14 points: 1. Open diplomacy; Covenant: freedom of negotiation. 2. Freedom of navigation on the sea. 3. Free trade: No economic barriers. 4. Disarmament: Arms limited to domestic safety. 5. A free and open-minded adjustments between the claims of major powers (colonial masters) and their people. (Self- determination) 6. Relief to Russia: Evacuation of its territory. 7. Relief to Belgium: Restoration of its territories. 8. Relief to France: Restoration of Alsace- Lorraine. 9. “Tinkering with Italy”: Its frontiers adjusted along distinct nationalities. 10. Relief to Austria-Hungary: To have autonomous development. 11. Relief and protection to the Balkan states: Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro to be evacuated. Serbia to have access to the sea. 12. Relief to the Ottoman Empire: Its sovereignty on the Turkish portions assured. Other nationalities to develop autonomously (seeds of self- determination) The Dardanelles to be permanently open to shipping. 13. Relief to Poland: Poland state created with free and secure access to sea. 14. An Association of Nations to be created to assure: Political sovereignty and independence, and Territorial integrity Principles of the League of Nations and the United Nations Organizations were laid out. Versailles Settlement: ● Treaty of Paris signed at Versailles on June 28, 1919 ● As Germany came out of the World War I vanquished, it had to accept the terms of the Versailles Settlement. ● The 1919 Versailles Settlement, also known as the Treaty of Paris, was based on Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points Plan (An essentially peace effort) ○ Provisions: ■ War Guilt: Germany and its allies had to accept sole responsibility for all damages. ■ Territorial Loss: Along with territories, Germany lost 13% of its population. ■ Reparation: Germany responsible for financial reparation to the victors for non- military damages as well. Amount and time not mentioned. 3 ■ Disarmament: Germany disarmed, but was systematically cheating. The victors also committed to disarmament but didn’t honor their commitment. ■ New States: New states were created because of the collapse of rival empires and national self-determination. • Poland, gone from the map in 1795, reappeared. • A new multi-ethnic state of Czechoslovakia was created. The League of Nations: ● Founded to maintain peace based on collective security ● Nations to unite to face an aggressor The Locarno Treaty of 1925: ● The Franco-German and Belgian- German frontiers were accepted and guaranteed. ● Britain and Italy were the treaty’s guarantors. ● Locarno brought Germany back into the community of nations. ● The treaty didn’t guarantee frontiers in Eastern Europe. Impact of the Versailles Settlement: Germany was punished with impunity: ● Disarmed; financially crippled. ● Lost land to Poland (Gdansk: outlet to sea). ● Alsace Lorraine returned to France. ● France to occupy Saar (rich in coal), ● Rhineland (to acquire security zone) Punishment to Germany: Two lines of reasoning: ● Punishment not hard enough: A.J.P. Taylor, historian. ● Punishment too hard: John Maynard Keynes: Economist. The concept of Conflict: ● Sigmund Freud (A psychologist): ○ ..We are torn between our innate drives for love and self-preservation on the one hand, and aggression and destruction on the other. ● Johan Galtung (A conflict theorist): ○ ..Human conflicts are largely due to a real or perceived incompatibility, or contradiction, between conflicting parties’ attitudes, behaviours, interests, needs, position and/or values. [Fear, Honour and Interest turn into reasons for war.] ● Conflicts, if not addressed or managed, may escalate or blow in the face later. [Understanding politics, International relations/politics, conflict and resolution of conflict] ● Conflict is inevitable and may or may not always be destructive. ○ A conflict may occur: ■ Within a person, ■ Between two or more individuals or groups or ■ Within or between large organizations, or nation states. ● Therefore, conflicts can range from intra- psychic to the international. ○ Examples: ■ Within a person: Whether to commit suicide or to kill any one etc. [Jehad: Originally meant as the way to combat and calm violent instincts as opposed to Fasad] ■ Couples undergoing an ugly divorce. ■ Between nations like Ethiopia and Somalia ■ Between people like the Palestinians and the Jews for the state of Israel 4 ■ Non-state adversaries like the USA and violent organizations around the world including Al-Qaeda ● In conflict,three kinds of behaviour by individual states (possibly to resolve the conflict): ○ Persuasion: Diplomacy, negotiation ○ Coercion: Sanction, aggression, war, occupation, persecution, torture ○ Reward: Incentives, trade deal, or award of territory. ● Outcomes of a conflict could be different: Win or Lose or Suspended! • Destruction or elimination of the enemy: ● Tamil Tigers eliminated by the Sri Lankan government ● Nazi regime destroyed by Allied powers ● Soviet Union collapsed at the end of the protracted arms race, the Cold War, and the ‘Free World’ won. • Suspended (Ceasefire): ● Iran-Iraq war (1980-88) ● India-Pakistan (Over Kashmir) ● India-China (Sino-Indian border dispute) The Atlantic Charter: ● was a cardinal statement jointly declared that defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was agreed to by all Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the War: o No territorial aggrandizement o No territorial changes made against the wishes of the people o Restoration of self-government to those deprived of it o Free access to trade and raw materials o Reduction in trade restrictions o Global cooperation to secure better socio-economic conditions for everyone o Freedom from fear and want o Freedom of the seas o Abdication of the use of force o Disarmament of aggressor nations ● Atlantic charter became the basis of the Declaration by United Nations and inspired many international agreements that affected the world. ● To establish bases to protect its shipping from attacks by German submarines, the United States occupied (Apr., 1941) Greenland and later shared in the occupation of Iceland. ● Relations with Germany became increasingly strained the aggressive acts of Japan in China, Indochina, and Thailand provoked protests from the United States. ● Efforts to reach a peaceful settlement were ended on Dec. 7, 1941, when Japan without warning attacked Pearl Harbor, the Philippines, and Malaya. ● War was declared (Dec. 8) on Japan by the United States, the Commonwealth of Nations (except Ireland), and the Netherlands. ● Within a few days Germany and Italy declared war on the United States. Democracy: ● Essential attributes: Rule of Law, representation, Separation of Powers, Republicanism, Secularism etc. Fascism: ● Essential attributes: (Authoritarian, Dictatorial, concentration of powers, racial superiority, militarism) 5 Communism: ● Essential attributes: Bolshevik Revolution (1917): Czarist Russia vs. The Bolsheviks. • Party Dictatorship • Class Division: Bourgeosie (Haves) and Proletarians (Have nots) • Achievement of Communism (the highest state) after Socialism: o Abolition of private property o Socialism: From each according to his/her capacity and to each according to the works done by him/her. o Communism: From each according to his capacity and to each according to his needs. • On achievement of Communism, the State withers away. • Assessment of Marxism-Leninism: Ideas vs. Matter / Idealism vs. Materialism The concept of Violence: ● Sigmund Freud (the psychologist): ○ Two instinctive forces in human ■ psychology: ● Human history is a history of human violence where the human race had unlimited instinct to inflict destruction (to all including species and nature). ■ Thanatos: ● Greek term: ‘the death’ or ‘destructive instinct’: hidden in every human being: That is the core of the problem. ● As opposed to thanatos, Eros (or, erotic): ‘Life’ or ‘survival instinct’ which encourages the growth of emotional kinship between human beings. This instinct is anti-thesis to war. ● From this instinct emerges the concept of Aristotle: ○ “Man is by nature a social animal” Other definitions: C.A.J. Coady (political philosopher): The exercise of physical force so as to inflict injury on or damage to persons or property. (Limited to physical violence only) JohanGaltung: In addition to physical and psychological violence, ‘direct,’ ‘structural’ and ‘cultural’ violence. The World Health Organization (WHO): An expansive definition of violence: The intentional use of physical force, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group of community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation. Types of Violence: 1. Self-directed violence (Violence against oneself, Timothy McVeigh, Shooter in Arizona, Colorado, Wisconsin) 2. Inter-personal violence (Enmity-driven, largely individual, Taliban’s violence) 3. Collective violence (Political violence, riots, genocide, pogroms) • Each of the above may involve physical, sexual, or psychological violence. Explanations: 6 ● Depriving one of his/her due intentionally or through negligence is also violence. [Circumstances causing voter intimidation and deprivation of voting rights, as in the USA, is also a kind of violence.] ● 740,000 men, women and children die each year as a result of armed violence. ● 490,000 deaths occur in countries not engaged in armed border conflict with neighboring countries. [Northern Mali: Socio-political control by extremist elements; Child-soldier; tribal warfare; ● Mexico/Honduras: violence driven by drug and gun cartels] ● Most violent deaths occur in non-war situations (criminally or politically motivated). ● 60% of all homicides committed with firearms. Accessibility to weapons matter. [Imagine a house without a firearm: Homicide could be prevented] The Cold War: ● A state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular ● The state of political hostility that existed between the Soviet bloc countries and the US-led Western powers from 1945 to 1990 Communism & Capitalism: ● Communism: A political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs ● Capitalism: An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit. Unipolar, Bipolar and Multipolar world: ● Polarity refers to the distribution of power in the international community. ○ A unipolar world has one hegemonic (dominating) state that holds a significant amount of power economically, militarily and politically. ○ A bipolar world occurs when two states hold such dominating power which inevitably results in confrontation between the two parties (ex. Cold War). ○ A multipolar world occurs when there are multiple states dominating and cooperating on the international stage. NATO: ● North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international organization composed of the US, Canada, Britain, and a number of European countries: established by the North Atlantic Treaty (1949) for purposes of collective security. Brezhnev Doctrine: ● A policy promoted by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev that asserted that the Soviet Union had the right to use military force to maintain the strict rule of the Communist Party in nearby socialist countries. ● The Brezhnev Doctrine was used to justify the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 after Alexander Dubček introduced political reforms there. ● The policy was maintained through 1989. Glasnost & Perestroika: Nuclear Arms Race: ● The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War. Islam: ● Islam is a religious faith developed by the Prophet Muhammed. 7 ● Prophet Muhammed (b. 570 C.E.) was a reformer, preacher and a peace-maker and also a warrior in the tribal Arabian peninsula. ● In the contemporary period, Islam functions as a political identity for millions and the inspiration of what some at least now regard as the most important ideological opposition to Western modern values. Islamist: ● The Muslim faith used in a political way, also called Islamism. Islamic Fundamentalism: ● Interpretation of Islam in its unadulterated fundamental way ● It focuses on the idea that, in order to survive, Muslims must not accept anything a non-Muslim government or institution has to offer and wage a holy war against any country that may conflict with Islam and Islamic beliefs. ● Islamic Fundamentalism is under the assumption that Islam is under constant threat. ● It believes in the hawkish and militant ideas of Islamic supremacy. ● Most of the ideas of Western society are rejected by Islamic fundamentalists as blasphemous or sacrilegious. ● Should the Western ideas and values be constantly undermined for fear that they must not gain any influence, particularly in the social-cultural and religious field? Huntington’s Civilizational Theory: • The real divisions in the post-Cold War world are not between nations or trade blocs but between “civilizations” based largely on religion. Seven major civilizations: o Western (North America and Europe) o Slavic/Orthodox o Islamic o Confucian o Hindu o Japanese, and o Latin American Within a given civilization, nations share much of the same outlook. Between civilizations, understanding is more difficult and conflicts could be bigger and nastier. • Major source of trouble: where Muslim civilization borders other civilizations
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