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McMaster University
Stefan Rodde

httpsdocsgooglecomdocumentd15pXe6GZLnlXOmHgZG2m0CKXWqNAFIDiBREXDbJiCAeditdoc where someone posted short answersOKAY PLEASE READ AND COMMENT BELOW WITH YOUR OPINION ABOUT THIS I COULDNT FIND ANYONE TO DO QUESTION FIVE SO I WAS WONDERING IF WE JUST NOT DO IT IF WE HAVE ALL THE OTHER QUESTIONS DONE AND COMPLETE THE REST THE STUDY GUIDE SAYS THAT THERE WILL BE A CHOICE OF WHICH ESSAYS WE SHOULD COMPLETE ON THE EXAM IS THIS SOMETHING EVERYONE IS OKAY WITH1 White believes that an act utilitarian approach to environmental protection is incompatible with the view that blame should only be assigned to the person or group that caused the environmental harm Outline her reasons for believing this What approach to assigning blame does White think that an act utilitarian should adopt Do you agree Explain why or why notBasic outline1 define what AU is and the problems which are encountered while using it for environmental protection basically lead this into the causation monstera illustrate why it doesnt work with AU with the town lynching example i child found dead in arms of town loner the child fell and died but town thinks loner murdered child the town riots causing disutility if we use AU then it is best to lynch the loner to increase utilityii therefore you dont even need to have a causal connection to provide the most utility and prevent disutility2 discuss the problems white sees with using causal connections to assign blamea difficulty finding out who was really to blame for harmi illustrate using the field of flowers examplea field has 1000 flowers and someone picks one this causes no harm and it might actually provide greater utility but if many people do it it leads to the destruction of the meadowii you cannot make a causal connection here because you have no idea who was really the cause for destroying the meadowthere were a variety of polluters and causation factorsb one person may be the cause of the destruction but it does not mean they were the sole or biggest contributori illustrate using the polluting river example with the child and the thermometerthe river can only handle a certain amount of pollutants and after you cross the threshold the river becomes polluted a bunch of factories nearly reach the threshold then one young child accidentally adds and pushes the river over the thresholdii you cant assign blame to the person who was the contributor to cross the threshold because contributions may be different in magnitudec after harm is done what is the point of blaming someone and the more contributors there are the less responsibility everyone holdsi use the shocker exampleevery person sends an electrical pulse to a victim separate they cause no harm but combined they kill the victim therefore everyone is responsible for a fraction of the deathii causes problems because this is absurd and the more contributors are added the less responsibility everyone has3 So because of all these problems White has developed something called the best fit modela define the best fit model and how it worksi she basically thinks causation shouldnt be used instead just calculate utility normallyii it assesses accountability to the contributors by which the least amount of disutility is produced regardless of causationiii in many casesresponsibility may be assigned without causal connectioniv also it assesses the disutility caused by assigning responsibilityso if you have a bunch of factories contributing to the pollution of a river punishing them might provide too much disutilityif one factory would suffer heavily other contributors would also be assigned responsibility4 Present the argument regarding if you agree with Whites modela I stated that i disagreedi though it may cause disutility to those being blamed the harm caused in the first place is far greater youre harming the environment what greater disutility is thereif the environment is destroyed you are ruining its use for both us and future generationsii causal connections are important in assigning responsibility once you separate cause from effect its no longer possible to predict the consequences of ones actions
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