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Part A Exam Review.docx

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McMaster University
Stefan Rodde

Tyranny of the Majority (Mill) - Majority should not impose views on minority - When majority opinion rules - Everyone has the freedom of opinion, liberty - Significance: If minority views are true, we will never know if these views are not expressed - If wrong, majority loses chance to strengthen their side - Everyone should be allowed to express their views no matter if it is offensive Original Position (Rawls) - a fair and impartial point of view - Justice as fairness - Hypothetical is the initial position without any differences to think what is the best form of justice - Veil of ignorance: ignorant of gender, wealth, class, etc. - Significance: want to see justice system operating under a veil of ignorance - Not knowing anything about the people that they’re representing, therefore trying to get the best out of the The Principle of Fidelity (Crito) - Should abide by agreement - Socrates remained in city and did not go against and escape - Laws exist for the benefit of everybody - Justice is the priority - Significance: if you contractly agree to live in a society, you must abide by their laws ex. Moving to another country is putting yourself in contract to abide by their laws Having Rights - refer to notes from lecture - difference dworkin is making between human rights and doing what is right - youtube example – if you want to comment you can as a freedom of expression but you can’t just say anything you like to such as sexist and racist comments - significance: difference between the two helps us go towards a more just society, ex. Nazi Germany - having what to do is right may have no connection to your rights - having rights doesn’t mean you’ll get the best society - Why is this distinction important? Civil Disobedience - Definition: when there is a breach in a person’s right, there is the right to commit civil disobedience and it is justified - Must be consciousness, cannot be secret, violent - Must be labeled as civil disobedience and not a crime - To solve this problem, the two models exist: balance model and special costs - Special costs model is the more justifiable model - Significance: provides protection against ones rights against the government, to bring upon a point within a society and allows an individual to protest their rights against the government Cumulative Harm - Actions that may not be harmful on their own, but may be when many people do it - It is more harmful as more people can be apart of it and it can build up - Significance: any harm can affect a person and eventually lead to violence/discrimination - Talk about hate/speech and how it increases to violence - No justification for that act if it leads to violence and etc. - Ex. Pollution affect, it builds up if everyone adopts that - Difference between someone being harmed and someone being wronged - Not every harm is a harm and not every harm can contribute to a cumulative harm Crimes of the Flesh - They include homosexuality, bestiality and masturbation which go against Kant’s natural function argument, which shows why these 3 things are immoral before marriage - Duty is to treat ourselves as a mere means to an end - Significance: if one rejects Kant’s natural function argument, then crimes of the flesh are immoral, but they can be moral if the couple is engaged in matrimony - Why are these crimes of the flesh? He thinks we abu
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