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Midterm Study Notes, Phil2TT3

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V Igneski

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Midterm Study Notes Kantian Ethics: focus on action and the reasoning behind them. - Moral Foundations: o Rationality – the ability to deliberate and act upon valid reasoning o Autonomy – persons have will and moral worth *Moral worth lies in the kind of act, not the consequences - Categorical Imperative o Universal Law:  Formulate Maxim  Formulate as universal law  Imagine a world with this universalized law  Evaluate for contradiction o Formula of Humanity  Never treat persons as means without individual ends Moral Relativism: - No universally valid standards - Validity dependent upon o Personal choice (subjectivism) o Cultural acceptance (conventionalism) Moral Objectivism: - Descriptive claim that cultures have different moral norms. o “it is the case that this is the way it is, NOT that this is the way it should be.” - Critique: o No basis for criticism of other cultures – no wrong or right between cultures, ultimately. Therefore: o No basis for reform o Difficult to define culture. Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics: - Choice of who to be instead of what to do – virtue as a disposition. - Goodness comes from our performance functionality o Happiness comes about through the rational, virtuous activity of the soul. - Agent must choose the virtuous action and make it habit. o Virtue seeks the mean - Virtues: o Friendliness o Generosity o Bravery o Mildness o Truthfulness Ethical Pluralism: W.D. Ross - Pluralistic, mixed, deontological theory of obligation - Several irreducible moral guides and rules that ought to guide our behaviours o Principles are self-evident  Intuitions form our moral theories -
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