Wasn"t always the only way to do science. Plato and rene descartes - thinking through problem and rationalize solution to problem. Only way to know something is to observe through senses. Not natural; involves overcoming more natural instincts (what you know, what seems right) Thinking through something new involves more effort and energy. Scientists are systematic empiricists (another way of knowing) - systematically examine a new phenomenon by observing certain variables, father data, and use this to support or discredit hypothesis. Not finding something could be due to it not existing or be a product of bad research. Examples - mozart effect - students who hear mozart sonata test better on spatial reasoning immediately after. People twist story into saying that babies who listen to mozart will be smarter. Companies take advantage of mozart effect (baby einstein), which might not hurt baby but has other negative effects -i. e. Baby watching lots of tv instead of interacting with parents.