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PoliSci 2I03 Midterm Review All Major Theories and Concepts

8 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Dr.J.A.Sandy Irvine

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Realism  What does the world look like? o Anarchy, struggle, classic realists hold these have roots in human nature  Who are the main actors o State and sovereignty is its distinguishing trait o Once security has been established civil society can begin  What motivates the actors? o Waltz: Power is a means to the end of security o Rational Choice  What is power? o Power is a relational concept, not in a vacuum but in relation to other states o Power is a relative concept, calculations need to be me not only about the one own power capabilities but about the power that other state actors posses  What to study o The relative distribution of power in the international system is the key independent variable in understanding important international outcomes such as war par alliance politics and the balance of power o Structural realists are intererest in providing a rank ordering of states to different and count the number of great powers that exist at any point of time o The number of great powers in turn determines the structure of the international system  Key Concepts o Anarchy Survival Self-help Liberalism  What does the world look like? o Anarchy and war is a a recurring feature of the anarchy system but anarchy is not the cause of war and power politics itself is a product of ideas and ideas can change  How to overcome conflict o Kant and Bentham Enlighment thinkers belief that reason could deliver freedom and justice to international realm o Democratic peace theory, Franisc Fukuyama The end of History liberalism triumph over all ideologies and liberal states are more stable. o Cobden and 19 century liberalism belive free trade would create a more peaceful world order, trade brings mulutal gains, o WW1 leads liberalism to realize that peace is not a natural condition but must be constructed. Woodrow Wilson peace can be secured by creation of international orgiznizations. Idealism dealt a blow with that failure. o Neoliberal hold that the creation of international reigims matter and facilitate cooperation by sharing info, reinfiocing reciprocity and making defection from norms easier to punish  States would enter agreements if the gains are evenly shared, absolute gains,  Academic enquiry should be guided towards a scientific approahch to theory building not idealist,  Number of variants of liberalism that influcince contemporary international realtions o David Balwdin identified  Commercial Liberalism advocates that free trade and a market capatiaist economy is the way towards peace and proeperity.  Republic liberalism sates that that democratic states are more inclined to respect the rights of their citizens and are less likey to go to war with their democratic neighbours, currently present as democratic peace theory. The two form the core foreign policy goals of many of the worlds great powers  Sociological Liberalisms the notion of community and the process of interdependence are important. As trasnational activites increase people become more linked and mecomes more difficult and costly for states to act unilaterally, the const of war or other deviant behavior increases, civil society  Neo-Liberal instutionalism is the most convince challenge, roots are in the functional intergration scholarship of the 40s and 50s as wells as regional intergration studies of the 60s  Way towards peace is to have independ states pool their resources and possibly surrender sovereignty to greate integreate communities to promote economic growth or respond to regional problems, counters arnarch system, mutual interests, absolute gains Marxism  Many saw the cold war as end of marx thought but reinissance is occurring o The breakup of soviet bloc wiped slate clean and can argue marx;s ideas without having to defend actions of governments that justify their behaviour in reference o Marx’s social theory retains strong analytical purchase in the modern world, his anlyiis of capatlism as a mode of production have not been bettered, good at anyliss or cris o Aim to expost a deeper underlying hidden truth that is that the familiar events of world politics like wars all occur within structures that have an enrourmous influence on those events, any attempt to understand world politics must be based on a broad understanding of the processes operating within global capitalism o The the effects of global capitalism are to ensure that the powerful and wealthy continue to prosper at the expense of the powerless and the poor  Essential elements of Marxist theories of world politics o The world should be be analysed as a totality, the academic divison of the social world into different areas is arbitrary and unhelpful, need to be transcendedto generate and understanding of the dynamics of world politics o The materliast conception of history, the processes of historical change are ultimately a reflection of the economic development of society, means of productions and relations of production form the economic base of a given society. The legal poltical and cultural institutions and practices of a society reflect and reinforce the pattern of power and control in the eceonomy. o Class, in contrast to liberals belief that there is an essential harmony of interests between various social groups marixst hold that society is prone to class conflict. Marx was commited to the cause of emancipation, overthrow the prevailing order  Imperalism to World systems theory o Marx was aware of the international and expansive character of capitalism subsequent writers developed at the start of the 20 century incorporate implications of capitalisms trasnborder characteriscts, imperialism in particular. Trorskys argued that no state could develop indepently within a capitalist system of states o Lenin in Imperalism the Highest statge of Capitliams argued that the character of capitalism had entered its final stage with development of monopoly capitliasm. A two teir structure had developed within structure had developed within the world economy, a dominat core exploiting a less developed periphery. No longer a harmony of interests between all workers cause core countires could pacify their working class through the exploitation of the periphery. Latin American dependcy school developed these views, Prebisch argued the countries in the periphery were suffering as a result of what he called the delving terms of trade. Manafactured good increase in price faster than raw materials. o World systems theory developed on the framework of dependency writers and is particualry associated with Immanuel Wallerstien argues that global history has been marked by the rise and demise of world systems and the modern world system emerged th in Europe at around the turn of the 16 century, driving force of relentless expasinons was captilaism. It is not elements that change but the entire system. Added semi periphery which provides a source of labour that counteracts any upward pressure on wages in the core and a home for industries that can no longer fuction profitably in the core. o World systems theorists argue that three zones of the world economy are linked together in an exploitative relationship in which wealth is drained away from the periphery to the center, the zones get more entrenched Gramscianism  Key question animated his work theoretical work was why was it hard to promote revolution in western Europe o Power is a mixture of coercion and consent. Marx had focused almost excuslivy on coercive practices and capabilities of the state, but in more developed countries of the west the system is maintain through consent which is created and recreated by the hegemony odf the ruling class in society, the heeomony allows the values of the dominant group to become widely dispersed o Takes places through the institutions of civil society: The networkd of institutions and practices that have some autonomy from the state and through whcihc groups and individuals organize represent and expresses themselves to each other and the state (media church voluntary orgaqnzaitons) o Marxist theory needs to take superstrucutral phenomena seriously the nature of realtions in the superstruce is relevant for determining how susceptible a society is to change and transformation. Historical bloc: to describe the mutually reinforcing and reciprocal relationships between the socio-economic relations (base) and political and cultural pracits (superstructure that underpin a given order) Interaction that matters o If the hegemon
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